Lead-Free Hunting Rifle Ammunition: Product Availability, Price, Effectiveness, and Role in Global Wildlife Conservation
- Vernon George Thomas
- … show all 1 hide
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Proposals to end the use of lead hunting ammunition because of the established risks of lead exposure to wildlife and humans are impeded by concerns about the availability, price, and effectiveness of substitutes. The product availability and retail prices of different calibers of lead-free bullets and center-fire rifle ammunition were assessed for ammunition sold in the USA and Europe. Lead-free bullets are made in 35 calibers and 51 rifle cartridge designations. Thirty-seven companies distribute internationally ammunition made with lead-free bullets. There is no major difference in the retail price of equivalent lead-free and lead-core ammunition for most popular calibers. Lead-free ammunition has set bench-mark standards for accuracy, lethality, and safety. Given the demonstrated wide product availability, comparable prices, and the effectiveness of high-quality lead-free ammunition, it is possible to phase out the use of lead hunting ammunition world-wide, based on progressive policy and enforceable legislation.
- AESAN. 2012. Report of the Scientific Committee of the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition (AESAN) in relation to the risk associated with the presence of lead in wild game meat in Spain. AESAN-2012-002 Report approved by the Scientific Committee on plenary session February 22, 2012. Retrieved September 1, 2012, from www.aesan.msc.es/AESAN/docs/docs/evaluacion_riegos/comite-cientifico/ingles/LEAD_GAME.pdf.
- Avery, D., and R.T. Watson. 2009. Regulation of lead-based ammunition around the world. In Ingestion of spent lead ammunition: Implications for wildlife and humans, ed. R.T. Watson, M. Fuller, M. Pokras, and W.G. Hunt, 161–168. Boise, Idaho: The Peregrine Fund. doi:10.4080/ilsa.2009.0115.
- Barnes LLC. 2012. Barnes VOR-TX® ammunition awarded the 2012 American hunter ammunition product of the year. Retrieved July 25, 2012, from http://www.barnesbullets.com/blog.2012/01/09/barnes-vor-tx.
- Booth, V.R. 2010. The contribution of hunting tourism: How significant is this to national economies? In Contribution of Wildlife to National Economies, 7–36. Budapest, Hungary: Joint Publication of Food and Agricultural Organization and the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation
- Burbaite, L., and S. Csányi. 2009. Roe deer population and harvest changes in Europe. Estonian Journal of Ecology 58: 169–180. doi:10.3176/eco.2009.3.02. CrossRef
- Dobrowolska, A., and M. Melosik. 2008. Bullet-derived lead in tissues of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus). European Journal of Wildlife Research 54: 231–235. doi:10.1007/s10344-007-0134-y. CrossRef
- EC. 2006. Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006 of 19 December, 2006, setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union 20.12.2006: L364/5–L364/24.
- FAOSTAT. 2011. Export quantity of game meat in European Union (Total)—1961–2008. UN/FAO database. Retrieved August 13, 2012, from http://data.mongabay.com/commodities/category/2-Tra/8-Crops.
- Franson, J.C., L.L. Lahner, C.U. Meteyer, and B.A. Rattner. 2012. Copper pellets simulating oral exposure to copper ammunition: Absence of toxicity in American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 62: 145–153. doi:10.1007/s00244-011-9671-1. CrossRef
- Grund, M.D., L. Cornicelli, L.T. Carlson, and E.A. Butler. 2010. Bullet fragmentation and lead deposition in white-tailed deer and domestic sheep. Human-Wildlife Interactions 4: 257–265.
- Haley, C. 2010. Solids vs mono-metal bullets. Which is best? African Hunter Magazine. Retrieved July 25, 2012, from http://www.shakariconnection.com/soilds-v-monometal.html.
- Helander, B., J. Axelsson, H. Borg, K. Holm, and A. Bignert. 2009. Ingestion of lead from ammunition and lead concentrations in white-tailed sea eagles (Heliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden. Science of the Total Environment 407: 5555–5563. doi:10.1016/jscitotenv.2009.07.027. CrossRef
- Hunt, W.G., W. Burnham, C.N. Parish, K.K. Burnham, B. Mutch, and J.L. Oaks. 2006. Bullet fragments in deer remains: Implications for lead exposure in avian scavengers. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34: 167–170. CrossRef
- Iqbal, S., W. Blumenthal, C. Kennedy, F.Y. Yip, S. Pickard, W.D. Flanders, K. Loringer, K. Kruger, et al. 2009. Hunting with lead: Association between blood lead levels and wild game consumption. Environmental Research 109: 952–959. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2009.08.007. CrossRef
- Irschik, I., F. Bauer, M. Sager, and P. Paulsen. 2012. Copper residues in meat from wild artiodactyls hunted with two types of rifle bullets manufactured from copper. European Journal of Wildlife Research. doi:10.1007/s10344-012-0656-9.
- Kanstrup, N. 2010. Sustainable Hunting Ammunition. CIC Workshop Report, Aarhus, Denmark, 5–7 November, 2009, 75 pp. International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation, Budapest, Hungary.
- Kelly, T.R., P.H. Bloom, S.G. Torres, Y.Z. Hernandez, R.H. Poppenga, W.M. Boyce, and C.K. Johnson. 2011. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures. PLoS ONE 6: e17656. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017656.
- Knott, J., J. Gilbert, R.E. Green, and D.G. Hoccom. 2009. Comparison of the lethality of lead and copper bullets in deer control operations to reduce incidental lead poisoning: Field trials in England and Scotland. Conservation Evidence 6: 71–78.
- Knott, J., J. Gilbert, D.G. Hoccom, and R.E. Green. 2010. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK. Science of the Total Environment 409: 95–99. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.08.053. CrossRef
- Kosnett, M.J. 2009. Health effects of low dose lead exposure in adults and children, and preventable risk posed by the consumption of game meat harvested with lead ammunition. In Ingestion of spent lead ammunition: Implications for wildlife and humans, ed. R.T. Watson, M. Fuller, M. Pokras, and W.G. Hunt, 24–33. Boise, Idaho: The Peregrine Fund. doi:10.4080/ilsa.2009.0103.
- Krone, O. (ed.). 2011. Lead intoxication in birds of prey: Causes, experiences, potential solutions, 127 pp. Berlin, Germany: Leibniz-Institut für Zoo- und Wildtierforschung (in German).
- Krone, O., N. Kenntner, A. Trinogga, M. Nadjafzadeh, F. Scholz, J. Sulawa, K. Totschek, P. Schuck-Wersig, et al. 2009. Lead poisoning in white-tailed sea eagles: Causes and approaches to solutions in Germany. In Ingestion of spent lead ammunition: Implications for wildlife and humans, ed. R.T. Watson, M. Fuller, M. Pokras, and W.G. Hunt, 289–301. Boise, Idaho: The Peregrine Fund. doi:10.4080/ilsa.2009.0207.
- Pain D.J., I.J. Fisher, and V.G. Thomas. 2009. A global update of lead poisoning in terrestrial birds from ammunition sources. In Ingestion of spent lead ammunition: Implications for wildlife and humans, ed. R.T. Watson, M. Fuller, M. Pokras, and W.G. Hunt, 99–118. Boise, Idaho: The Peregrine Fund. doi:10.4080/ilsa.2009.0108.
- Pain, D.J., R.L. Cromie, J. Newth, M.J. Brown, E. Crutcher, P. Hardman, L. Hurst, R. Mateo, et al. 2010. Potential hazard to human health from exposure to fragments of lead bullets and shot in the tissues of game animals. PLoS ONE 5: e10315. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.001031. CrossRef
- Pauli, J.N., and S.W. Buskirk. 2007. Recreational shooting of prairie dogs: A portal for lead entering wildlife food chains. Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 103–108. doi:10.2193.2005-620. CrossRef
- Reeve, A.F., and T.C. Vosburgh. 2006. Recreational shooting of prairie dogs. In Conservation of the black-tailed prairie dog, ed. J.L. Hoogland, 139–156. Washington, DC: Island Press.
- Saito, K. 2009. Lead poisoning of Steller’s sea eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus) and white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) caused by the ingestion of lead bullets and slugs, in Hokkaido, Japan. In Ingestion of spent lead ammunition: Implications for wildlife and humans, ed. R.T. Watson, M. Fuller, M. Pokras, and W.G. Hunt, 302–309. Boise, Idaho: The Peregrine Fund. doi:10.4080/ilsa.2009.0304.
- Schaller, M.J. 2007. Forests and wildlife management in Germany. A mini review. Eurasian Journal of Forest Research 10: 59–70.
- Schuck-Wersig, P. 2011. Lead poisoning in birds of prey: Essential results of a survey amongst German hunters. In Lead intoxication in birds of prey: Causes, experiences, potential solutions, ed. O. Krone, 64–71. Berlin, Germany: Leibniz-Institut für Zoo- und Wildtierforschung (in German, English summary).
- Spicher, V. 2008. Experiences with lead-free rifle ammunition under field hunting conditions. In Lead poisoning of sea eagles: Causes and approaches to solutions—The transition to lead-free rifle ammunition, ed. O. Krone, 81–90. Berlin, Germany: Leibniz-Institut für Zoo- und Wildtierforschung (in German).
- Spicher, V. 2011. Potential impact of lead intoxication on the white-tailed sea eagle population in the Müritz National Park. In Lead intoxication in birds of prey: Causes, experiences, potential solutions, ed. O. Krone, 47–51. Berlin, Germany: Leibniz-Institut für Zoo- und Wildtierforschung (in German, English summary).
- Thomas V.G. 2009. The policy and legislative dimensions of non-toxic ammunition use in North America. In Ingestion of spent lead ammunition: Implications for wildlife and humans, ed. R.T. Watson, M. Fuller, M. Pokras, and W.G. Hunt, 351–362. Boise, Idaho: The Peregrine Fund. doi:10.4080/ilsa.2009.0311.
- Thomas, V.G., and R. Guitart. 2010. Limitations of European Union policy and law for regulating use of lead shot and sinkers: Comparisons with North American regulation. Environmental Policy and Governance 20: 57–72. doi:10.1002/eet.527. CrossRef
- Thomas, V.G., and I.R. McGill. 2008. Dissolution of copper and tin from sintered tungsten-bronze shot in a simulated gizzard, and an assessment of their potential toxicity to birds. Science of the Total Environment 394: 283–289. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.01.049. CrossRef
- Thomas, V.G., and M. Owen. 1996. Preventing lead toxicosis of European waterfowl by regulatory and non-regulatory means. Environmental Conservation 23: 358–364. CrossRef
- Thomas, V.G., R. Santore, and I.R. McGill. 2007. Release of copper from sintered tungsten-bronze shot under different pH conditions and its potential toxicity to aquatic organisms. Science of the Total Environment 374: 71–79. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.10.004. CrossRef
- Trinogga, A., G. Fritsch, H. Hofer, and O. Krone. 2013. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology. Science of the Total Environment 443: 226–232. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.10.084.
- Watson, R.T., M. Fuller, M. Pokras, and W.G. Hunt (eds.). 2009. Ingestion of lead from spent ammunition: Implications for wildlife and humans, 383 pp. Boise, Idaho: The Peregrine Fund.
- Lead-Free Hunting Rifle Ammunition: Product Availability, Price, Effectiveness, and Role in Global Wildlife Conservation
Volume 42, Issue 6 , pp 737-745
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Lead-free ammunition
- Global conservation
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Integrative Biology, College of Biological Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada