, Volume 35, Issue 7, pp 6245-6253
Date: 25 Apr 2014

Restoring TGFβ1 pathway-related microRNAs: possible impact in metastatic prostate cancer development

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Abstract

In developed countries, prostate cancer (PC) is the neoplasia more frequently diagnosed in men. The signaling pathway induced by the transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) has an important role in cell growth, differentiation, and development, the downregulation of this pathway being associated with cancer development. In PC, the activation of this signaling pathway is lost, resulting in favoring of tumor growth, proliferation, and evasion of apoptosis. Several studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNA, are closely associated with the development, invasion, and metastasis, suggesting that they have a critical role in cancer development. Recently, Smad proteins, the signal transducers of the TGFβ1 signaling pathway, were found to regulate miRNA expression, through both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms underlying Smad-mediated regulation of miRNA biogenesis and the effects on cancer development, particularly in PC. We identify that TGFβ1-related miR-143, miR-145, miR-146a, and miR-199a may have a key role in the development of prostate cancer metastasis and the restoration of their expression may be a promising therapeutic strategy for PC treatment.

Juliana Inês Santos and Ana Luísa Teixeira contributed equally to this work.