Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 9-23

First online:

Four dimensional CT imaging: a review of current technologies and modalities

  • J. MoorreesAffiliated withMedical Physics Department, Royal Adelaide Hospital Email author 
  • , E. BezakAffiliated withMedical Physics Department, Royal Adelaide HospitalSchool of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide

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Organ motion is a substantial concern in the treatment of thoracic tumours using radiotherapy. A number of technologies have evolved in order to address this both during computed tomography (CT) imaging and radiation delivery. This review paper investigates the various technologies which have been developed in the field of CT scanning as well as their accuracy, cost and the implications of their clinical implementation. The scanning modalities covered include: slow CT, breath hold CT, gated CT and retrospectively correlated CT (4DCT). It was found that there are advantages and drawbacks to each of the mentioned techniques relating to patient dose, scan time, extra equipment and workload. Also some scanning techniques are only compatible with certain treatment modalities which would further influence the decision as to which technologies to implement.


4DCT Review Four dimensional Retrospective Prospective Gated Breath hold