Article

Fungal Diversity

, Volume 57, Issue 1, pp 149-210

Towards a natural classification of Botryosphaeriales

  • Jian-Kui LiuAffiliated withInstitute of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang UniversitySchool of Science, Mae Fah Luang UniversityInternational Fungal Research & Development Centre, The Research Institute of Resource Insects, Chinese Academy of Forestry
  • , Rungtiwa PhookamsakAffiliated withInstitute of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang UniversitySchool of Science, Mae Fah Luang University
  • , Mingkhuan DoilomAffiliated withInstitute of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang UniversitySchool of Science, Mae Fah Luang University
  • , Saowanee WikeeAffiliated withInstitute of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang UniversitySchool of Science, Mae Fah Luang University
  • , Yan-Mei LiAffiliated withInternational Fungal Research & Development Centre, The Research Institute of Resource Insects, Chinese Academy of Forestry
  • , Hiran AriyawanshaAffiliated withInstitute of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang UniversitySchool of Science, Mae Fah Luang University
  • , Saranyaphat BoonmeeAffiliated withInstitute of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang UniversitySchool of Science, Mae Fah Luang University
  • , Putarak ChomnuntiAffiliated withInstitute of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang UniversitySchool of Science, Mae Fah Luang University
  • , Dong-Qin DaiAffiliated withInstitute of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang UniversitySchool of Science, Mae Fah Luang University
    • , Jayarama D. BhatAffiliated withInstitute of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang UniversitySchool of Science, Mae Fah Luang UniversityFormerly at Department of Botany, Goa University
    • , Andrea I. RomeroAffiliated withPrhideb-Conicet, Deptomento Cs. Biológicas, Facultad de Cs. Exactas y Naturales (UBA), Ciudad Universitaria
    • , Wen-Ying ZhuangAffiliated withState Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    • , Jutamart MonkaiAffiliated withInstitute of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang UniversitySchool of Science, Mae Fah Luang University
    • , E. B. Gareth JonesAffiliated withInstitute of Ocean and Earth Sciences (IOES), C308, Institute of Postgraduate Studies Building, University of Malaya
    • , Ekachai ChukeatiroteAffiliated withSchool of Science, Mae Fah Luang University
    • , Thida Win Ko KoAffiliated withInstitute of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang University
    • , Yong-Chang ZhaoAffiliated withMacrofungi Research Lab, Institute of Biotechnology & Germplasmic Resource, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Science
    • , Yong WangAffiliated withDepartment of Plant Pathology, Agriculture College, Guizhou University
    • , Kevin D. HydeAffiliated withInstitute of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang UniversitySchool of Science, Mae Fah Luang UniversityInternational Fungal Research & Development Centre, The Research Institute of Resource Insects, Chinese Academy of Forestry Email author 

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Abstract

The type specimens of Auerswaldia, Auerswaldiella, Barriopsis, Botryosphaeria, Leptoguignardia, Melanops, Neodeightonia, Phaeobotryon, Phaeobotryosphaeria, Phyllachorella, Pyrenostigme, Saccharata, Sivanesania, Spencermartinsia and Vestergrenia were examined and fresh specimens of Botryosphaeriales were collected from Thailand. This material is used to provide a systematic treatment of Botryosphaeriales based on morphology and phylogeny. Two new genera, Botryobambusa and Cophinforma are introduced and compared with existing genera. Four species new to science, Auerswaldia dothiorella, A. lignicola, Botryosphaeria fusispora and Phaeobotryosphaeria eucalypti, are also described and justified. We accept 29 genera in Botryosphaeriales, with Macrovalsaria being newly placed. In the phylogenetic tree, the 114 strains of Botyrosphaeriales included in the analysis cluster into two major clades with 80 %, 96 % and 1.00 (MP, ML and BY) support, with Clade A containing the family type of Botryosphaeriaceae, and Clade B containing Phyllosticta, Saccharata and Melanops species. This group may represent Phyllostictaceae. In Clade A the taxa analyzed cluster in eight sub-clades (Clades A1–8). Clade A1 comprises three distinct subclusters corresponding to the genera Diplodia (Diplodia Clade), Neodeightonia (Neodeightonia Clade) and Lasiodiplodia (Lasiodiplodia Clade). Clade A2 clusters into three groups representing Phaeobotryosphaeria (100 %), Phaeobotryon (100 %) and Barriopsis (94 %). Clade A3 incorporates 17 strains that cluster into three well-supported genera (Dothiorella (86 %), Spencermartinsia (100 %) and Auerswaldia (63 %); the position of Macrophomina is not stable. Clade A4 is a single lineage (100 %) representing the new genus Botryobambusa. Clade A5 is a well-supported subclade incorporating Neofussicoccum. Clade A6 represents the type species of Botryosphaeria, three other Botryosphaeria species and two other genera, Neoscytalidium and Cophinforma gen. nov. Clade A7 comprises two Pseudofusicoccum species and Clade A8 has two Aplosporella species. These sub-clades may eventually require separate families but this requires analysis of a much larger dataset. Our data advances the understanding of Botryosphaeriales, there is, however, still much research to be carried out with resolution of families and genera, linkage of sexual and asexual morphs and differentiation of cryptic species.

Keywords

Asexual morphs Botryosphaeria Botryosphaeriaceae Classification Diplodia Generic types Lasiodiplodia Multi-gene phylogeny New genera Phyllosticta