Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in pregnancy: An Update

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Abstract

Introduction

Traditionally, insulin has been the gold standard in the management of Type 2 diabetes in pregnancy and gestational diabetes. However, insulin therapy can be inconvenient because of the needs for multiple injections, its associated cost, pain at the injection site, need for refrigeration, and skillful handling of the syringes. This has led to the exploration of oral hypoglycemic agents as an alternative to insulin therapy.

Objectives

This review examines and evaluates the evidences on the efficacy, safety, and current recommendations of oral hypoglycemic agents.

Conclusion

The evidence of this study supports the use of glyburide and metformin in the management of Type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes with no increased risk of neonatal hypoglycemia or congenital anomalies. The safety of these oral hypoglycemic agents are limited to the prenatal period and more randomized controlled trials are required to provide information on the long-term follow up on neonatal and cognitive development.