A Study to Compare the Efficacy of Misoprostol, Oxytocin, Methyl-ergometrine and Ergometrine–Oxytocin in Reducing Blood Loss in Active Management of 3rd Stage of Labor
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- Gohil, J.T. & Tripathi, B. J Obstet Gynecol India (2011) 61: 408. doi:10.1007/s13224-011-0060-5
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The purpose of the study was to compare the efficacy of misoprostol 400 μg per rectally, injection oxytocin 10 IU intramuscular, injection methylergometrine 0.2 mg intravenously and injection (0.5 mg ergometrine + 5 IU oxytocin) intramuscular on reducing blood loss in third stage of labor, duration of third stage of labor, effect on haemoglobin of the patient, need of additional oxytocics or blood transfusion and associated side effects and complications.
A prospective non-randomized uncontrolled study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SSG Hospital and Medical College, Baroda enrolling 200 women and dividing them into four groups. Active management of 3rd stage of labor was done using one of the 4 uterotonics as per the group of the patient. The main outcome measures were the amount of blood loss, the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage and a drop in hemoglobin concentration from before delivery to 24 h after delivery.
Methylergometrine was found to be superior to rest of the drugs in the study with lowest duration of third stage of labor (P = 0.000096), lowest amount of blood loss (P = 0.000017) and lowest incidence of PPH (P = 0.03). There was no significant difference in the pre-delivery and the post-delivery hemoglobin concentration amongst the four groups with P = 0.061. The need of additional oxytocics and blood transfusion was highest with misoprostol as compared to all other drugs used in the study with P = 0.037 and 0.009, respectively. As regards side effects, misoprostol was associated with shivering and pyrexia in significantly high number of patients as compared to the other drugs used in the study while nausea, vomiting and headache were more associated with methylergometrine and ergometrine–oxytocin. However all the side effects were acceptable and preferable to the excessive blood loss.
Methylergometrine has the best uterotonic drug profile amongst the drugs used, strongly favouring its routine use as oxytocic for active management of third stage of labor. Misoprostol was found to cause a higher blood loss compared to other drugs and hence should be used only in low resource setting where other drugs are not available. The role of misoprostol in third stage of labor needs larger studies to be proved.