Development of arbuscular mycorrhizal biotechnology and industry: current achievements and bottlenecks
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- Vosátka, M., Látr, A., Gianinazzi, S. et al. Symbiosis (2012) 58: 29. doi:10.1007/s13199-012-0208-9
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Advanced scientific knowledge on arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses recently enhanced potential for implementation of mycorrhizal biotechnology in horticulture and agriculture plant production, landscaping, phytoremediation and other segments of the plant market. The advances consist in significant findings regarding:—new molecular detection tools for tracing inoculated fungi in the field;—the coexistence mechanisms of various fungi in the single root system;—new knowledge on in vitro physiology of the AM fungi grown in root organ cultures;—mechanisms of synergistic interactions with other microbes like PGPR or saprotrophic fungi; discovery of mycorrhiza supportive compounds such as strigolactones. Scientific knowledge has been followed by technological developments like novel formulations for liquid applications or seed coating, mycorrhiza stimulating compounds or new application modes. Still the missing components of biotechnology are appropriate, cheap, highly reproducible and effective methods for inocula purity testing and quality control. Also there is a weak traceability of the origin of the mycorrhizal fungi strains used in commercial inocula. Numerous poor quality products can still be found on the markets claiming effective formation mycorrhiza which have very low capacity to do so. These products usually rely in their effects on plant growth not on support of host plants via formation of effective mycorrhizal symbiosis but on fertilizing compounds added to products. There is growing number of enterprises producing mycorrhiza based inocula recently not only in developed world but increasingly in emerging markets. Also collaboration between private sector and scientific community has an improving trend as the development of private sector can fuel further research activities. Last but not least there is apparent growing pull of the market and increasing tendency of reduction of agrochemical inputs and employment of alternative strategies in planting and plant production. These circumstances support further developments of mycorrhizal inocula production and applications and maturation of the industry.