Original Article

Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology

, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 165-171

First online:

Early Detection of Breast, Cervical, Ovarian and Endometrial Cancers in Low Resource Countries: An Integrated Approach

  • Mahesh K. ShettyAffiliated withClinical Professor of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Woman’s Hospital of Texas Email author 
  • , Adhemar Longatto-FilhoAffiliated withLaboratory of Medical Investigation, Faculty of Medicine, University of São PauloLife and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences, Universidade do Minho

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The incidence of breast and gynecological cancers continues to increase in low and middle resource countries [LRC’S and MRC’s] with a disproportionately higher mortality rate compared to that in high resource countries. This has been attributed to factors such as an increased life span due to better control of communicable diseases and improved nutrition, as well as lifestyle and reproductive changes. A lack of public awareness and understanding of these cancers, absence of an organized screening program and a lack of accessible and effective treatment options, is responsible for the higher mortality rate. A practical approach of a combined program of integrating a well woman examination with screening for breast and cervical cancer and diagnostic evaluation for Ovarian and Endometrial cancer in symptomatic women is proposed in this article which can serve as a model to be studied for efficacy in low resource countries.


Screening Diagnosis Breast cancer Cervical Cancer Ovarian cancer Endometrial cancer