, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 245-251,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 23 May 2010

Predictive, preventive and personalised medicine for age-related macular degeneration


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an ophthalmologic disease which usually affects older adults and represents the leading cause of legal blindness in Europe and the United States of America. The pathogenesis of AMD is complex and, nowadays, the treatments are targeting more the late form of the disease. Age and genetic make-up are the most important risk factors identified to date. There are undoubtedly environmental and other risk factors involved and the adverse effect of smoking is well established. New treatments for AMD have emerged with improved prognostic outcome. This remarkable advances in our understanding of the genetic and biological foundations of this disease were derived from a recent convergence of scientific and clinical data. In the near future we will have several therapeutic options for treatment of AMD at different stages and therefore personalising more and more the treatment.