Translational Stroke Research

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 425–431

Sport-Related Concussion: “How many is too many?”

  • R. J. Elbin
  • Tracey Covassin
  • Luke Henry
  • Diana J. Whalen
  • Jennine Wedge
  • Anthony P. Kontos
Review Article

DOI: 10.1007/s12975-012-0237-y

Cite this article as:
Elbin, R.J., Covassin, T., Henry, L. et al. Transl. Stroke Res. (2013) 4: 425. doi:10.1007/s12975-012-0237-y

Abstract

The long-term effects of multiple sport-related concussions are currently at the center of debate in the popular press and scientific community. The question, “How many concussions are too many,” is frequently asked in the competitive sport environment by parents, athletes, and coaches. While research suggests that a history of concussion influences the risk and recovery from subsequent concussion, studies investigating the long-term effects of multiple concussions are less conclusive. This paper reviews the literature on multiple concussions and the potential long-term consequences of these injuries. Furthermore, this paper addresses how concussion history can inform clinical and return-to-play decisions. Recent studies incorporating novel brain imaging and electrophysiological technology for assessing residual impairment from multiple concussions are reviewed and the clinical implications of this work are discussed.

Keywords

Sport-related concussion Multiple concussion Neurocognitive testing 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. J. Elbin
    • 1
    • 4
  • Tracey Covassin
    • 2
  • Luke Henry
    • 1
  • Diana J. Whalen
    • 3
  • Jennine Wedge
    • 1
  • Anthony P. Kontos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic Surgery/UPMC Sports Medicine Concussion ProgramUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of KinesiologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  4. 4.UPMC Center for Sports MedicinePittsburghUSA

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