Energy Systems

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 45–65

Observability enhancement by optimal PMU placement considering random power system outages

Authors

  • F. Aminifar
    • Electrical Engineering DepartmentSharif University of Technology
  • M. Fotuhi-Firuzabad
    • Electrical Engineering DepartmentSharif University of Technology
    • Electrical and Computer Engineering DepartmentIllinois Institute of Technology
  • A. Khodaei
    • Electrical and Computer Engineering DepartmentIllinois Institute of Technology
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s12667-011-0025-x

Cite this article as:
Aminifar, F., Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M., Shahidehpour, M. et al. Energy Syst (2011) 2: 45. doi:10.1007/s12667-011-0025-x

Abstract

This paper enhances the observability of power networks by taking into consideration random component outages. The architecture of wide-area measurement system (WAMS) is analyzed in order to identify components that would affect the network observability. An iterative framework is devised to calculate a bus index in power networks equipped with phasor measurement units (PMUs) and conventional measurements. The average of bus indices represents a system index which provides an overall insight on the power network observability. The system index is utilized as a criterion to distinguish among multiple optimal PMU placements. Conventional bus injection and line flow measurements and the effect of zero-injection buses are considered in the proposed model. The numerical analyses are carried out for the proposed model and the results are discussed in detail.

Keywords

Phasor measurement unitsWide-area measurementSystem observability analysisProbabilistic assessment

Nomenclature

APO

Average probability of observability

Aij

Probability of observability of bus i with PMU at bus j

\(A_{ij}^{\mathit{Cm}}\)

Availability of current measurement at line ij

\(A_{ij}^{\mathit{CT}}\)

Availability of CT at line ij

\(A_{ij}^{\mathit{FM}}\)

Availability of conventional flow measurement at line ij

\(A_{i}^{\mathit{{IM}}}\)

Availability of conventional injection measurement at bus i

\(A_{ij}^{\mathit{Line}}\)

Availability of line ij

\(A_{i}^{\mathit{Link}}\)

Availability of communication link for PMU at bus i

\(A_{i}^{\mathit{PMU}}\)

Availability of PMU at bus i

\(A_{i}^{\mathit{PT}}\)

Availability of PT at bus i

\(A_{i}^{\mathit{Vm}}\)

Availability of voltage measurement at bus i

aij

Binary connectivity parameter between buses i and j

bij

Binary parameter of flow measurement at line ij

Di

Difference of POi in the last two iterations

fi

Observability function of bus i

I

Set of buses

i,j,k

Indices of bus

Nb

Number of buses

POi

Probability of observability of bus i

ui

Binary decision variable that is equal to one if PMU is installed at bus i and zero otherwise

xij

Binary variable; 1 denotes bus i is made observable through the observability of bus j and flow measurements on line ij

\(\bar{x}_{ij}\)

Auxiliary binary variable; 1 when xij=1 and uj=0

yij

Binary variable; 1 denotes bus i is made observable through the zero-injection effect of bus j

\(\bar{y}_{ij}\)

Auxiliary binary variable; 1 when yij=1, xij=0, and uj=0

zi

Binary parameter of zero-injection bus i or the injection measurement at bus i

γ

System observability redundancy index (SORI)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011