The effects of fertilizer applications on runoff loss of phosphorus
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- Wang, W., Liang, T., Wang, L. et al. Environ Earth Sci (2013) 68: 1313. doi:10.1007/s12665-012-1829-2
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The phosphorus index (PI) can be used to effectively identify areas with high risks of phosphorus losses. Manures and fertilizers are important source factors for the establishment of the PI system. An artificial precipitation experiment was performed to evaluate phosphorus losses with the applications of different types of fertilizers and manures. The results showed that the total phosphorus (TP) losses in runoff followed the order of ammonium phosphate monobasic (NH4H2PO4), ammonium hydrogen phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4), monobasic potassium phosphate (KH2PO4), chicken manure, and cattle manure with surface application of these fertilizers and manures. The order was slightly changed to NH4H2PO4, KH2PO4, (NH4)2HPO4, chicken manure, and cattle manure with incorporation application under the same rainfall condition. Both the methods and the rate of manure application can affect the amounts of phosphorus in water and particles of runoff. More than 90 % of TP in runoff were lost through suspended particles. Manure application had a significant contribution to the P load in runoff.