The on-site observations, monitoring data, and results of back analyses of failures showed that large-scale failures occurred along both the interconnected sliding surfaces, consisting of (a) discontinuities in the dacites and the contact zone and (b) the circular surfaces through the weathered soil-like dacites at the Cakmakkaya and Damar open pit mines. Surface water infiltration through the weathered soil-like material after a short duration of rainfall contributed to the circular-shaped failures. After a heavy rainy period, an increase in the groundwater table above the contact zone played a major role in the initiation of bi-planar wedge failures. In addition, the stability of the slopes is likely to have been controlled by the orientation of this zone. The results of back analyses indicated that the shear strengths of the soil-like materials in the weathered dacites and the contact zone had reduced to their residual values at the time of initial sliding. The flattening of the slope angles with an effective surface drainage and long-term monitoring of the groundwater level is proposed as the most suitable remedial measure.
Bi-planar wedge failure Back analyses Shear strength Weathering Slope stability