Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 309-323

First online:

The Use of Compacted Tropical Clay Treated With Rice Husk Ash as a Suitable Hydraulic Barrier Material in Waste Containment Applications

  • Adrian. O. EberemuAffiliated withDepartment of Civil Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University Email author 
  • , A. A. AmadiAffiliated withDepartment of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Technology
  • , K. J. OsinubiAffiliated withDepartment of Civil Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University

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Protection of our environment from pollutants emanating from wastes generated by man made activities and disposal systems in less developed countries is now a matter of growing concern. Laboratory tests were conducted on compacted tropical clay treated with up to 16 % rice husk ash (RHA) an agro-industrial waste to access its suitability in waste containment barrier application. Soil–RHA mixtures was compacted using standard Proctor, West African Standard and modified Proctor efforts at −2, 0, 2 and 4 % of optimum moisture content. Index properties, volumetric shrinkage, hydraulic conductivity, and unconfined compressive strength tests were performed. Overall acceptable zones under which the material was suitable (low hydraulic conductivity <1 × 10−9 m/s, minimum volumetric shrinkage strain <4 % and high compressive strength > 200 kN/m2) were obtained. Results suggest the suitability of this material in waste containment barrier application for up to 8 % RHA treatment,which will ameliorate the environmental problems created by this agro-industrial waste.


Rice husk ash Compacted tropical clay Hydraulic barrier Unconfined compressive strength Volumetric shrinkage strain Hydraulic conductivity Waste containment systems