Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 309–323

The Use of Compacted Tropical Clay Treated With Rice Husk Ash as a Suitable Hydraulic Barrier Material in Waste Containment Applications


    • Department of Civil EngineeringAhmadu Bello University
  • A. A. Amadi
    • Department of Civil EngineeringFederal University of Technology
  • K. J. Osinubi
    • Department of Civil EngineeringAhmadu Bello University

DOI: 10.1007/s12649-012-9161-3

Cite this article as:
Eberemu, A.O., Amadi, A.A. & Osinubi, K.J. Waste Biomass Valor (2013) 4: 309. doi:10.1007/s12649-012-9161-3


Protection of our environment from pollutants emanating from wastes generated by man made activities and disposal systems in less developed countries is now a matter of growing concern. Laboratory tests were conducted on compacted tropical clay treated with up to 16 % rice husk ash (RHA) an agro-industrial waste to access its suitability in waste containment barrier application. Soil–RHA mixtures was compacted using standard Proctor, West African Standard and modified Proctor efforts at −2, 0, 2 and 4 % of optimum moisture content. Index properties, volumetric shrinkage, hydraulic conductivity, and unconfined compressive strength tests were performed. Overall acceptable zones under which the material was suitable (low hydraulic conductivity <1 × 10−9 m/s, minimum volumetric shrinkage strain <4 % and high compressive strength > 200 kN/m2) were obtained. Results suggest the suitability of this material in waste containment barrier application for up to 8 % RHA treatment,which will ameliorate the environmental problems created by this agro-industrial waste.


Rice husk ashCompacted tropical clayHydraulic barrierUnconfined compressive strengthVolumetric shrinkage strainHydraulic conductivityWaste containment systems

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012