Consumption of Grape Seed Extract Prevents Amyloid-β Deposition and Attenuates Inflammation in Brain of an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse
Polyphenols extracted from grape seeds are able to inhibit amyloid-beta (Aβ) aggregation, reduce Aβ production and protect against Aβ neurotoxicity in vitro. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of a polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (GSE) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mice. APPSwe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were fed with normal AIN-93G diet (control diet), AIN-93G diet with 0.07% curcumin or diet with 2% GSE beginning at 3 months of age for 9 months. Total phenolic content of GSE was 592.5 mg/g dry weight, including gallic acid (49 mg/g), catechin (41 mg/g), epicatechin (66 mg/g) and proanthocyanidins (436.6 mg catechin equivalents/g). Long-term feeding of GSE diet was well tolerated without fatality, behavioural abnormality, changes in food consumption, body weight or liver function. The Aβ levels in the brain and serum of the mice fed with GSE were reduced by 33% and 44%, respectively, compared with the Alzheimer’s mice fed with the control diet. Amyloid plaques and microgliosis in the brain of Alzheimer’s mice fed with GSE were also reduced by 49% and 70%, respectively. Curcumin also significantly reduced brain Aβ burden and microglia activation. Conclusively, polyphenol-rich GSE prevents the Aβ deposition and attenuates the inflammation in the brain of a transgenic mouse model, and this thus is promising in delaying development of AD.