Effects of high-intensity exercise and protein supplement on muscle mass in ADL dependent older people with and without malnutrition—A randomized controlled trial
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- Carlsson, M., Littbrand, H., Gustafson, Y. et al. J Nutr Health Aging (2011) 15: 554. doi:10.1007/s12603-011-0017-5
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Loss of muscle mass is common among old people living in institutions but trials that evaluate interventions aimed at increasing the muscle mass arc lacking.
Objective, participants and intervention
This randomized controlled trial was performed to evaluate the effect of a high intensity functional exercise program and a timed protein-enriched drink on muscle mass in 177 people aged 65 to 99 with severe physical or cognitive impairments, and living in residential care facilities.
Three-month high-intensity exercise was compared with a control activity and a protein-enriched drink was compared with a placebo drink A bioeicctrical impedance spectrometer (BIS) was used in the evaluation The amount of muscle mass and body weight (BW) were followed-up at three and six months and analyzed in a 2 × 2 factorial ANCOVA, using the intention to treat principle, and controlling for baseline values.
At 3-month follow-up there were no differences in muscle mass and BW between the exercise and the control group or between the protein and the placebo group. No interaction effects were seen between the exercise and nutritional intervention. Long term negative effects on muscle mass and BW was seen in the exercise group at the 6-month follow-up.
A three month high-intensity functional exercise program did not increase the amount of muscle mass and an intake of a protein-enriched drink immediately after the exercise did not induce any additional effect on muscle mass. There were negative long term effects on muscle mass and BW, indicating that it is probably necessary to compensate for an increased energy demand when offering a high-intensity exercise program.