Interactions between the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus and red-tide dinoflagellates
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- Seong, K.A. & Jeong, H.J. Ocean Sci. J. (2011) 46: 105. doi:10.1007/s12601-011-0010-2
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Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common pathogenic bacterium in marine and estuarine waters. To investigate interactions between V. parahaemolyticus and co-occurring redtide dinoflagellates, we monitored the daily abundance of 5 common red tide dinoflagellates in laboratory culture; Amphidinium carterae, Cochlodinium ploykrikoides, Gymnodinium impudicum, Prorocentrum micans, and P. minimum. Additionally, we measured the ingestion rate of each dinoflagellate on V. parahaemolyticus as a function of prey concentration. Each of the dinoflagellates responded differently to the abundance of V. parahaemolyticus. The abundances of A. carterae and P. micans were not lowered by V. parahaemolyticus, whereas that of C. polykrikodes was lowered considerably. The harmful effect depended on bacterial concentration and incubation time. Most C. polykrikoides cells died after 1 hour incubation when the V. parahaemolyticus concentration was 1.4×107 cells ml−1, while cells died within 2 days of incubation when the bacterial concentration was 1.5×106 cells ml−1. With increasing V. parahaemolyticus concentration, ingestion rates of P. micans, P. minimum, and A. carterae on the prey increased, whereas that on C. polykrikoides decreased. The maximum or highest ingestion rates of P. micans, P. minimum, and A. carterae on V. parahaemolyticus were 55, 5, and 2 cells alga−1 h−1, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that V. parahaemolyticus can be both the killer and prey for some red tide dinoflagellates.