Asia Pacific Education Review

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 151-169

First online:

How can we assess and evaluate the competitive advantage of a country’s human resource development system?

  • Hunseok OhAffiliated withCollege of Education Seoul National University
  • , Hyue-Hyun RyuAffiliated withCollege of Education Seoul National University Email author 
  • , Myungweon ChoiAffiliated withAjou University

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The purpose of this study was to develop an index to assess and evaluate the competitive advantage of a country’s human resource development system. Based on an extensive literature review, a theoretical model of a human resource development system at the national level (named National Human Resource Development: NHRD) was constructed. The model consists of four factors—supply conditions, demand conditions, environment, and supporting systems—and NHRD system competitiveness was measured by the cumulative sum of a country’s achievement in each of these four factors. The four factors were divided into 10 sub-categories, and 45 indicators were selected based on criteria such as relevance, international comparability, reliability, timeliness, and accessibility. Finally, by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process, the individual weights of the 45 indicators were calculated. In addition, the relationships between the NHRD competitiveness scores of OECD member countries and other relevant variables, including GDP per capita and the scores from other national competitiveness studies, were analyzed to examine the validity of the index.


National human resource development National competitiveness Human resource competitiveness Human resource development policy Human resource development system