Food and Environmental Virology

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 119–125

Detection of Multiple Human Sapoviruses from Imported Frozen Individual Clams

  • Setsuko Iizuka
  • Reiko Takai-Todaka
  • Hitoshi Ohshiro
  • Masaaki Kitajima
  • Qiuhong Wang
  • Linda J. Saif
  • Takaji Wakita
  • Mamoru Noda
  • Kazuhiko Katayama
  • Tomoichiro Oka
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s12560-013-9109-1

Cite this article as:
Iizuka, S., Takai-Todaka, R., Ohshiro, H. et al. Food Environ Virol (2013) 5: 119. doi:10.1007/s12560-013-9109-1

Abstract

Sapovirus (SaV), a member of the family Caliciviridae, is an important acute gastroenteritis pathogen in humans. Consumption of raw or inadequately cooked clams is one transmission route of human SaV. Sixty individual clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) were from market and tested for human SaVs using two nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, one of which was recently developed and effectively detected human SaV from environmental water samples. The nested RT-PCR effective for water samples showed a higher detection rate (68.3 %, 41 of 60 clams) than the other nested RT-PCR (43.3 %, 26 of 60 clams). Based on the sequence analysis of the partial capsid region, SaV strains detected in this study were classified into nine genotypes: GI.1, GI.3, GI.5, GI.6, GI.7, GII.3, GII.4, GIV.1, and GV.1. We demonstrated for the first time the presence of multiple genogroups and/or genotypes of SaV strains in the individual clams. Using a more sensitive assay such as we described to test individual clam samples will help to identify the source of a SaV-gastroenteritis outbreak.

Keywords

Sapovirus Clam Digestive diverticula Nested RT-PCR 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Setsuko Iizuka
    • 1
  • Reiko Takai-Todaka
    • 2
  • Hitoshi Ohshiro
    • 1
  • Masaaki Kitajima
    • 3
  • Qiuhong Wang
    • 4
  • Linda J. Saif
    • 4
  • Takaji Wakita
    • 2
  • Mamoru Noda
    • 5
  • Kazuhiko Katayama
    • 2
  • Tomoichiro Oka
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of VirologyShimane Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental ScienceShimaneJapan
  2. 2.Department of Virology IINational Institute of Infectious DiseasesTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Soil, Water and Environmental ScienceThe University of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Veterinary Preventive MedicineFood Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State UniversityWoosterUSA
  5. 5.Division of Biomedical Food ResearchNational Institute of Health SciencesTokyoJapan

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