Thermal Inactivation of Human Norovirus Surrogates

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s12560-011-9059-4

Cite this article as:
Gibson, K.E. & Schwab, K.J. Food Environ Virol (2011) 3: 74. doi:10.1007/s12560-011-9059-4


We investigated the thermal inactivation profiles of murine norovirus (MNV), Hepatitis A virus (HAV), and feline calicivirus (FCV), which are surrogates for the study of human noroviruses. Thermal inactivation of MNV and FCV were evaluated at 37, 50, and 60°C and HAV at 37, 50, 60, and 70°C. All viral surrogates were relatively stable at 37°C. MNV and FCV decimal reduction times (D-values) at 50°C were statistically significantly different (P < 0.05) with MNV being more stable. Both surrogates had comparable, low D-values at 60°C. HAV had significantly higher (P < 0.05) D-values than both MNV and FCV at 50 and 60°C. Overall, the infectivity assay results indicate that HAV is resistant to thermal inactivation while MNV is moderately resistant and FCV is least resistant.


Norovirus Thermal inactivation Feline calicivirus Murine norovirus Surrogate 

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Division of Environmental Health Engineering, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthJohns Hopkins Center for Water and HealthBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of Food Science, Biomass Research CenterUniversity of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA