Wearable systems and mobile applications for diabetes disease management
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- Georga, E.I., Protopappas, V.C., Bellos, C.V. et al. Health Technol. (2014) 4: 101. doi:10.1007/s12553-014-0082-y
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder requiring the active and continuous participation of diabetic individuals, their caregivers and physicians in order to be managed and well-controlled. Diabetes care has evolved considerably over the years with the development of advanced medical technologies and therapeutics. In the first part of this paper, we present the state of the art in wearable medical devices for monitoring and controlling blood glucose levels with special emphasis on continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices and insulin pumps. Moreover, a description is made of the significant steps taken towards a portable fully automated closed-loop glucose control system (artificial pancreas) suitable for outpatient use. The second part of this paper is concerned with mobile self-management support interventions in diabetes care. Advances in mobile computing and wireless communications have enabled the development of efficient mobile applications for self-monitoring diabetes and providing feedback. Both literature and digital distribution stores demonstrate a plethora of such paradigms with, admittedly, obvious variety in their functionalities, design and validity. The way in which mobile health technology has contributed to improvements in diabetes health outcomes and life is also discussed and future directions for research are identified.