Date: 25 Jul 2010

Codon populations in single-stranded whole human genome DNA Are fractal and fine-tuned by the Golden Ratio 1.618

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Abstract

This new bioinformatics research bridges Genomics and Mathematics. We propose a universal “Fractal Genome Code Law”: The frequency of each of the 64 codons across the entire human genome is controlled by the codon’s position in the Universal Genetic Code table. We analyze the frequency of distribution of the 64 codons (codon usage) within single-stranded DNA sequences. Concatenating 24 Human chromosomes, we show that the entire human genome employs the well known universal genetic code table as a macro structural model. The position of each codon within this table precisely dictates its population. So the Universal Genetic Code Table not only maps codons to amino acids, but serves as a global checksum matrix. Frequencies of the 64 codons in the whole human genome scale are a self-similar fractal expansion of the universal genetic code. The original genetic code kernel governs not only the micro scale but the macro scale as well. Particularly, the 6 folding steps of codon populations modeled by the binary divisions of the “Dragon fractal paper folding curve” show evidence of 2 attractors. The numerical relationship between the attractors is derived from the Golden Ratio. We demonstrate that:

  1. The whole Human Genome Structure uses the Universal Genetic Code Table as a tuning model. It predetermines global codons proportions and populations. The Universal Genetic Code Table governs both micro and macro behavior of the genome.

  2. We extend the Chargaff’s second rule from the domain of single TCAG nucleotides to the larger domain of codon triplets.

  3. Codon frequencies in the human genome are clustered around 2 fractal-like attractors, strongly linked to the golden ratio 1.618.

An erratum to this article can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12539-010-0051-8