Cardiovascular Reactivity and Cardiometabolic Risk in Adolescents
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Cardiovascular reactivity has been examined as a risk marker or factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension or cardiovascular disease, but few have examined the relationship with the metabolic syndrome.
We examined whether cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory stress is associated with individual cardiometabolic risk factors and their co-occurrence. A significant positive relationship was hypothesized for both individual and clustered risk factors in their cross-sectional associations with reactivity to multiple stressors.
A sample of 144, 15–17-year-old adolescents (74 % boys) largely from ethnic minority groups (54 % Hispanic White, 26 % Black) were identified at annual blood pressure (BP) screening (39 % with elevated BP) at high schools in Miami, Florida, USA. Participants completed the evaluated speaking, mirror star tracing, and cold pressor tasks, as well as cardiometabolic risk factor blood sampling. Participants were classified into metabolic syndrome criterion groups (0, 1, 2, or ≥3 criteria) based on American Heart Association adult criteria.
Multiple regression analyses with individual metabolic syndrome variables demonstrated that diastolic (D)BP reactivity during the mirror star tracing task accounted for 1.3 %, 3.8 %, and 5.1 % of the respective variances in casual systolic BP, waist circumference, and triglycerides (ps < 0.05). In multinomial logistic regression models, increased DBP reactivity during mirror star tracing and cold pressor tasks, and decreased HR reactivity during the cold pressor, were associated with greater likelihood of risk factor co-occurrence (ranging from 8.3 % to 15.8 %).
Findings indicate that autonomic reactivity to the mirror star tracing and cold pressor tasks, but not the evaluated speaking task, is associated with risk factor co-occurrence, and reactivity may be a clinical prognosticator of cardiometabolic disease risk.
- Weiss R, Dziura J, Burgert TS, Tamborlane WV, Taksali SE, Yeckel CW, et al. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2362–74. CrossRef
- Steinberger J, Daniels SR, Eckel RH, Hayman L, Lustig RH, McCrindle B, et al. Progress and challenges in metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in the Young Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. Circulation. 2009;119:628–47. CrossRef
- Thomas F, Bean K, Pannier B, Oppert J-M, Guize L, Benetos A. Cardiovascular mortality in overweight subjects: the key role of associated risk factors. Hypertension. 2005;46:654–9. CrossRef
- Berenson GS, Srinivasan SR, Bao W, Newman WP, Tracy RE, Wattigney WA. Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:1650–6. CrossRef
- Grassi G, Seravalle G, Dell-Oro R, Turri C, Bolla GB, Mancia G. Adrenergic and reflex abnormalities in obesity-related hypertension. Hypertension. 2000;36:538–42. CrossRef
- Grassi G, Arenare F, Quarti-Trevano F, Seravalle G, Mancia G. Heart rate, sympathetic cardiovascular influences, and the metabolic syndrome. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;52:31–7. CrossRef
- Manuck SB, Krantz DS. Psychophysiologic reactivity in coronary heart disease. Behav Med Update. 1984;6:11–5.
- Parker FC, Croft JB, Cresanta JL, Freedman DS, Burke GL, Webber LS, et al. The association between cardiovascular response tasks and future blood pressure levels in children: the Bogalusa heart study. Am Heart J. 1987;113:1174–9. CrossRef
- Goldbacher EM, Matthews KA, Salomon K. Central adiposity is associated with cardiovascular reactivity to stress in adolescents. Health Psychol. 2005;24:375–84. CrossRef
- Steptoe A, Fieldman G, Evans O, Perry L. Cardiovascular risk and responsivity to mental stress: the influence of age, gender, and risk factors. J Cardiovasc Risk. 1996;3:83–93. CrossRef
- Keltikangas-Jarvinen L, Ravaja N, Raikkonen K, Lyytinen H. Insulin resistance syndrome and autonomically mediated physiological responses to experimentally induced mental stress in adolescent boys. Metabolism. 1996;45:614–21. CrossRef
- Aldo Ferrara L, Guida L, Ferrara F, De Luca G, Castaldo R, Viola S. Blood pressure at rest, during 24 h monitoring and in response to sympathetic stimulation in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome. Int J Cardiol. 2007;117:312–6. CrossRef
- Puttonen S, Keltikangas-Jarvinen L, Ravaja N, Viikari J. Affects and autonomic cardiac reactivity during experimentally induced stress as related to precursors of insulin resistance syndrome. Int J Behav Med. 2003;10:106–24. CrossRef
- Saab PG, Llabre MM, Hurwitz BE, Frame CA, Reineke LJ, Fins AI, et al. Myocardial and peripheral vascular responses to behavioral challenges and their stability in black and white Americans. Psychophysiology. 1992;29:384–97. CrossRef
- Saab PG, Schneiderman N. Biobehavioral stressors, laboratory investigation, and the risk of hypertension. In: Blascovich J, Katkin ES, editors. Cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stress and disease. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 1993. p. 49–82. CrossRef
- Davis MC, Twamley EW, Hamilton NA, Swan PD. Body fat distribution and hemodynamic stress responses in premenopausal women: a preliminary study. Health Psychol. 1999;18:625–33. CrossRef
- Matthews KA, Katholi CR, McCreath H, Whooley MA, Williams DR, Zhu S. Blood pressure reactivity to psychological stress predicts hypertension in the CARDIA study. Circulation. 2004;110:74–8. CrossRef
- Cugnetto ML, Saab PG, Llabre MM, Goldberg R, McCalla JR, Schneiderman N. Lifestyle factors, body mass index, and lipid profile in adolescents. J Pediatr Psychol. 2008;33:761–71. CrossRef
- Llabre MM, Spitzer SB, Saab PG, Ironson GH, Schneiderman N. The reliability and specificity of delta versus residualized change as a measure of cardiovascular reactivity to behavioral challenges. Psychophysiology. 1991;28:701–11. CrossRef
- Pickering TG. Challenge response predictors. General principles Am J Hypertens. 1991;4:611–4.
- Saab PG, Matthews KA, Stoney CM, McDonald RH. Premenopausal and postmenopausal women differ in their cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to behavioral stressors. Psychophysiology. 1989;26:270–80. CrossRef
- Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute scientific statement. Circulation. 2005;112:2735–52. CrossRef
- Goodman E, Daniels SR, Meigs JB, Dolan LM. Instability in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in adolescents. Circulation. 2007;115:2251–3. CrossRef
- Kamarck TW, Jennings JR, Pogue-Geile M, Manuck SB. A multidimensional model for cardiovascular reactivity: stability and cross-validation in two adult samples. Health Psychol. 1994;13:471–8. CrossRef
- Bjorntorp P. Do stress reactions cause abdominal obesity and comorbidities? Obes Rev. 2001;2:73–86. CrossRef
- Scheuch K, Hanefeld M, Grabler J, Seibt R, Naumann H-J. Hypertriglyceridaemia in mild hypertension: impact on cardiovascular and hormonal reactivity under different stress tests. J Hum Hypertens. 1999;13:533–9. CrossRef
- Patterson SM, Gottdiener JS, Hecht G, Vargot S, Krantz DS. Effects of acute mental stress on serum lipids: mediating effects of plasma volume. Psychosom Med. 1993;55:525–32.
- Brindley DN, McCann BS, Niaura R, Stoney CM, Suarez EC. Stress and lipoprotein metabolism: modulators and mechanisms. Metabolism. 1993;42:3–15. CrossRef
- Carroll D, Phillips AC, Der G. Body mass index, abdominal adiposity, obesity, and cardiovascular reactions to psychological stress in a large community sample. Psychosom Med. 2008;70:653–60. CrossRef
- Tentolouris N, Liatis S, Katsilambros N. Sympathetic system activity in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1083:129–52. CrossRef
- Mancia G, Bousquet P, Elghozi JL, Elser M, Grassi G, Julius S, et al. The sympathetic nervous system and the metabolic syndrome. J Hypertens. 2007;25:909–20. CrossRef
- Harrington F, Murray A, Ford GA. Relationship of baroreflex sensitivity and blood pressure in an older population. J Hypertens. 2000;18:1629–33. CrossRef
- Grassi G, Seravalle G, Cattaneo BM, Bolla GB, Lanfranchi A, Colombo M, et al. Sympathetic activation in obese normotensive subjects. Hypertension. 1995;25:560–3. CrossRef
- Gadegbeku CA, Dhandayuthapani A, Sadler ZE, Egan BM. Raising lipids acutely reduces baroreflex sensitivity. Am J Hypertens. 2002;15:479–85. CrossRef
- Skrapari I, Tentolouris N, Katsilambros N. Baroreflex function: determinants in healthy subjects and disturbances in diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2006;2:329–38. CrossRef
- Takahashi N, Nakagawa M, Saikawa T, Ooie T, Yufu K, Shigematsu S, et al. Effect of essential hypertension on cardiac autonomic function in type 2 diabetic patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;38:232–7. CrossRef
- Lindgren K, Hagelina E, Hanse’na N, Lind L. Baroreceptor sensitivity is impaired in elderly subjects with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. J Hypertens. 2006;24:143–50. CrossRef
- Grassi G, Dell’Oro R, Quarti-Trevano F, Scopelliti F, Seravalle G, Paleari F. Neuroadrenergic and reflex abnormalities in patients with metabolic syndrome. Diabetologia. 2005;48:1359–65. CrossRef
- Lee ZA, Critchley JA, Tomlinson B, Young RP, Thomas GN, Cockram CS. Urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine interrelations with obesity, insulin, and the metabolic syndrome in Hong Kong Chinese. Metabolism. 2001;50:135–43. CrossRef
- Chang AM, Halter JB. Aging and insulin secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003;284:E7–12.
- Hagstrom-Toft E, Arner P, Wahrenberg H, Wennlund A, Ungerstedt U, Bolinder J. Adrenergic regulation of human adipose tissue metabolism in situ during mental stress. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993;76:392–8.
- Naliboff BD, Cohen MJ, Sowers JD. Physiological and metabolic responses to brief stress in non-insulin dependent diabetic and control subjects. J Psychosom Res. 1985;29:367–74. CrossRef
- Matthews KA, Woodall KL, Allen MT. Cardiovascular reactivity to stress predicts future blood pressure status. Hypertension. 1993;22:479–85. CrossRef
- Cardiovascular Reactivity and Cardiometabolic Risk in Adolescents
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Volume 21, Issue 1 , pp 122-130
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Cardiovascular reactivity
- Cardiometabolic risk
- Metabolic syndrome
- Autonomic dysfunction