Development of a Smoking Abstinence Self-efficacy Questionnaire
Self-efficacy beliefs are an important determinant of (changes in) health behaviors. In the area of smoking cessation, there is a need for a short, feasible, and validated questionnaire measuring self-efficacy beliefs regarding smoking cessation.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychometric properties of a six-item questionnaire to assess smoking cessation self-efficacy.
We used longitudinal data from a smoking cessation study. A total of 513 smokers completed the Smoking Abstinence Self-efficacy Questionnaire (SASEQ) and questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and motivation to quit smoking. After that, they set a quit date and attempted to stop smoking. One year after the quit date, smoking status of participants was assessed by self report. The psychometric properties of the SASEQ were studied and we investigated whether SASEQ scores predicted successful smoking cessation.
Factor analysis yielded one factor, with an Eigenvalue of 3.83, explaining 64% of variance. All factor loadings were ≥0.73. We found a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.89 for the SASEQ, low correlations for the SASEQ with depressive symptoms, and motivation to quit, indicating that self-efficacy is measured independently of these concepts. Furthermore, high baseline SASEQ scores significantly predicted smoking abstinence at 52 weeks after the quit date (OR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.20~2.84).
The SASEQ appeared to be a short, reliable, and valid questionnaire to assess self-efficacy beliefs regarding smoking abstinence. In the present study, this instrument also had good predictive validity. The short SASEQ can easily be used in busy clinical practice to guide smoking cessation interventions.
- Bandura A. Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioural change. Psychol Rev. 1977;54:846–52.
- Bandura A. Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall; 1986.
- Pechacek TF, Danaher BG. How and why people quit smoking: a cognitive-behavioral analysis. In: Kendall PC, Hollon SD, editors. Cognitive-behavioral interventions: theory, research, and procedures. New York: Academic; 1979. p. 389–422.
- Kok G, Den Boer D, De Vries H, Gerards F, Hospers HJ, Mudde AN. Self-efficacy and attribution theory in health education. In: Schwarzer R, editor. Self-efficacy: thought control of action. Washington: Hemisphere; 1992. p. 245–62.
- Baldwin AS, Rothman AJ, Hertel AW, Linde JA, Jeffery RW, Finch EA, Lando HA. Specifying the determinants of the initiation and maintenance of behavior change: an examination of self-efficacy, satisfaction, and smoking cessation. Heal Psychol. 2006;25:626–34. CrossRef
- Chouinard MC, Robichaud-Ekstrand S. Predictive value of the transtheoretical model to smoking cessation in hospitalized patients with cardiovascular disease. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehab. 2007;14:51–8. CrossRef
- Woodruff SI, Conway TL, Edwards CC. Sociodemographic and smoking-related psychosocial predictors of smoking behavior change among high school smokers. Addict Behav. 2008;33:354–8. CrossRef
- Condiotte MM, Lichtenstein E. Self-efficacy and relapse in smoking cessation programs. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1981;49:648–58. CrossRef
- Baer JS, Holt CS, Lichtenstein E. Self-efficacy and smoking reexamined: construct validity and clinical utility. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1986;54:846–52. CrossRef
- DiClemente CC. Self-efficacy and smoking cessation maintenance: a preliminary report. Cogn Ther Res. 1981;5:175–87. CrossRef
- DiClemente CC, Prochaska JO, Gibertini M. Self-efficacy and the stages of self-change of smoking. Cogn Ther Res. 1985;9:181–200. CrossRef
- Etter JF, Bergman MM, Humair JP, Perneger TV. Development and validation of a scale measuring self-efficacy of current and former smokers. Addiction. 2000;95:901–13. CrossRef
- Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC, Velicer WF, Ginpil S, Norcross JC. Predicting change in smoking status for self-changers. Addict Behav. 1985;10:395–406. CrossRef
- Velicer WF, DiClemente CC, Rossi JS, Prochaska JO. Relapse situations and self-efficacy: an integrative model. Addict Behav. 1990;15:271–83. CrossRef
- De Vries H, Backbier E. Self-efficacy as an important determinant of quitting among pregnant women who smoke: the Ф-pattern. Prev Med. 1994;23:167–74. CrossRef
- Godding PR, Glasgow RE. Self-efficacy and outcome expectancy as predictors of controlled smoking status. Cogn Ther Res. 1985;9:583–90. CrossRef
- Carmody TP. Affect regulation, nicotine addiction, and smoking cessation. J Psychoact Drugs. 1989;21:331–42. CrossRef
- Croghan IT, Ebbert JO, Hurt RD, Hays JT, Dale LC, Warner N, Schroeder DR. Gender differences among smokers receiving interventions for tobacco dependence in a medical setting. Addict Behav. 2009;34:61–7. CrossRef
- Kinnunen T, Doherty K, Militello FS, Garvey AJ. Depression and smoking cessation: characteristics of depressed smokers and effects of nicotine replacement. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1996;64:791–8. CrossRef
- Zhu S-H, Sun J, Billings SC, Won S, Choi WS, Malarcher A. Predictors of smoking cessation in U.S. adolescents. Am J Prev Med. 1999;16(3):202–7. CrossRef
- Mudde AN, Willemsen MC, Kremers S, De Vries H. Meetinstrumenten voor onderzoek naar stoppen met roken. The Hague: Stivoro; 2000.
- Dijkstra A, Bakker M, De Vries H. Subtypes within a sample of precontemplating smokers: a preliminary extension of the stages of change. Addict Behav. 1997;22(3):327–37. CrossRef
- Dijkstra A, Roijackers J, De Vries H. Smokers in four stages of readiness to change. Addict Behav. 1998;23(3):339–50. CrossRef
- Dijkstra A, De Vries H, Roijackers J. Computerized tailored feedback to change cognitive determinants of smoking: a Dutch field experiment. Heal Educ Res. 1998;13(2):197–206. CrossRef
- Dijkstra A, De Vries H, Roijackers J. Targeting smokers with low readiness to change with tailored and nontailored self-help materials. Prev Med. 1999;28:203–11. CrossRef
- De Vries H, Mudde AN, Dijkstra A, Willemsen MC. Differential beliefs, perceived social influences, and self-efficacy expectations among smokers in various motivational phases. Prev Med. 1998;27:681–9. CrossRef
- Cox JL, Holden JM, Sagovsky R. Detection of postnatal depression: development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Br J Psychiatry. 1987;150:782–6. CrossRef
- Cox JL, Chapman G, Murray D, Jones P. Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in non-postnatal women. J Affect Disord. 1996;39:185–9. CrossRef
- Matthey S, Barnett B, Kavanagh DJ, Howie P. Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for men, and comparison of item endorsement with their partners. J Affect Disord. 2001;64:175–84. CrossRef
- Pop VJ, Komproe IH, Van Son MJ. Characteristics of the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale in the Netherlands. J Affect Disord. 1992;26:105–10. CrossRef
- Arrindel, W.A. and Ettema, J.H.M. (2003). SCL-90: Handleiding bij een multidimensionele psychopathologie-indicator. [Dutch SCL-90 Manual] Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger
- Nunnally JC, Bernstein IH. Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1994.
- Caponnetto P, Polosa R. Common predictors of smoking cessation in clinical practice. Respir Med. 2008;102:1182–92. CrossRef
- Koopmans B, Pouwer F, de Bie RA, Leusink GL, Denollet JK, Pop VJ. Associations between vascular co-morbidities and depression in insulin-naive diabetes patients: the DIAZOB Primary Care Diabetes study. Diabetologia. 2009;52(10):2056–63. CrossRef
- Development of a Smoking Abstinence Self-efficacy Questionnaire
- Open Access
- Available under Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Volume 20, Issue 3 , pp 444-449
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Psychometric Properties
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Centre of Research on Psychology in Somatic diseases (CoRPS), Tilburg University, Tilburg, the Netherlands
- 2. Department of Medical Psychology, Máxima Medical Centre Veldhoven, Veldhoven, the Netherlands
- 3. Department of Medical Psychology, CoRPS - Centre for Research on Psychology in Somatic diseases, Tilburg University, PO Box 90153, 5000, Tilburg, the Netherlands