Interventions to Promote Physical Activity in Young People Conducted in the Hours Immediately After School: A Systematic Review
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
After school is a critical period in the physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns of young people. Interventions to promote physical activity during these hours should be informed by existing evidence.
The present study provides a systematic review of interventions to promote physical activity in young people conducted in the hours immediately after school.
The review was conducted in accordance with guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Studies were located through searches of electronic databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and ERIC. For included studies, data were extracted and methodological quality assessed using standardised forms.
Ten papers, reporting nine studies, met inclusion criteria. Three studies reported positive changes in physical activity and six indicated no change. Evidence suggests that single-behaviour interventions may be most effective during these hours.
Limitations in study design, lack of statistical power and problems with implementation have likely hindered the effectiveness of interventions in the after-school setting to date. Further work is required to develop interventions during this critical period of the day.
- Boreham C, Riddoch C. The physical activity, fitness and health of children. J Sport Sci. 2001;19(12):915–29. CrossRef
- Strong WB, Malina RM, Blimkie CJ, Daniels SR, Dishman RK, Gutin B, et al. Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. Pediatr. 2005;146(6):732–7. CrossRef
- Tortelero SR, Wendell CT, Murray NG. Physical activity, physical fitness and social, psychological and emotional health. In: Armstrong N, Van-Mechelen W, editors. Paediatric exercise science and medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2000. p. 273–95.
- Varo JJ, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, de Irala-Estevez J, Kearney J, Gibney M, Martinez JA. Distribution and determinants of sedentary lifestyles in the European Union. Int J Epidemiol. 2003;32(1):138–46. CrossRef
- Wang Y, Lobstein T. Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2006;1(1):11–25. CrossRef
- Lobstein T, Baur L, Uauy R. Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health. Obes Rev. 2004;5 Suppl 1:4–104. CrossRef
- Sallis JF, Owen N. Ecological models. In: Glanz K, editor. Health behaviour and health education. 2nd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1997. p. 403–24.
- Salmon J, Booth ML, Phongsavan P, Murphy N, Timperio A. Promoting physical activity participation among children and adolescents. Epidemiol Rev. 2007;29:144–59. CrossRef
- Cale L, Harris J. Interventions to promote young people's physical activity—issues, implications and recommendations for practice. Health Educ J. 2006;65(4):348–65. CrossRef
- Tudor-Locke C, Lee SM, Morgan CF, Beighle A, Pangrazi RP. Children's pedometer determined physical activity during the segmented school day. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(10):1732–8. CrossRef
- Mota J, Santos P, Guerra S, Ribeiro JC, Duarte JA. Patterns of daily physical activity during school days in children and adolescents. Am J Human Biol. 2003;15(4):547–53. CrossRef
- Atkin AJ, Gorely T, Biddle SJH, Marshall SJ, Cameron N. Critical hours: physical activity and sedentary behaviour of adolescents after school. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2008;20(4):446–56.
- O'Connor J, Ball EJ, Steinbeck KS, Davies PSW, Wishart C, Gaskin KJ, et al. Measuring physical activity in children: a comparison of four different methods. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2003;15(2):202–15.
- Battista J, Nigg CR, Chang JA, Yamashita M, Chung R. Elementary after school programs: an opportunity to promote physical activity for children. Californian J Health Promot. 2005;3(4):108–18.
- Pate RR, O'Neill JR. After-school interventions to increase physical activity among youth. Brit J Sports Med. 2009;43(1):14–8. CrossRef
- Robinson TN, Killen JD, Kraemer HC, Wilson DM, Matheson DM, Haskell WL, et al. Dance and reducing television viewing to prevent weight gain in African-American girls: the Stanford GEMS pilot study. Ethn Dis. 2003;13(1 Suppl 1):S65–77.
- Story M, Sherwood NE, Himes JH, Davis M, Jacobs Jr DR, Cartwright Y, et al. An after-school obesity prevention program for African-American girls: the Minnesota GEMS pilot study. Ethn Dis. 2003;13(1 Suppl 1):S54–64.
- Pate RR, Saunders RP, Ward DS, Felton G, Trost SG, Dowda M. Evaluation of a community-based intervention to promote physical activity in youth: lessons from Active Winners. Am J Health Promot. 2003;17(3):171–82.
- Weintraub DL, Tirumalai EC, Haydel KF, Fujimoto M, Fulton JE, Robinson TN. Team sports for overweight children: the Stanford Sports to Prevent Obesity Randomized Trial (SPORT). Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162(3):232–7. CrossRef
- National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. The guidelines manual. London, http://www.nice.org.uk/aboutnice/howwework/developingniceclinicalguidelines/clinicalguidelinedevelopmentmethods/theguidelinesmanual2006/the_guidelines_manual_2006.jsp2006, 2006.
- Jago R, Baranowski T. Non-curricular approaches for increasing physical activity in youth: a review. Prev Med. 2004;39(1):157–63. CrossRef
- Kahn EB, Ramsey LT, Brownson RC, Heath GW, Howze EH, Powell KE, et al. The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity. A systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2002;22(4 Suppl):73–107. CrossRef
- Pate RR, Trost SG, Mullis R, Sallis JF, Wechsler H, Brown DR. Community interventions to promote proper nutrition and physical activity among youth. Prev Med. 2000;31(2):S138–49. CrossRef
- Stone EJ, McKenzie TL, Welk GJ, Booth ML. Effects of physical activity interventions in youth. Review and synthesis. Am J Prev Med. 1998;15(4):298–315. CrossRef
- Timperio A, Salmon J, Ball K. Evidence-based strategies to promote physical activity among children, adolescents and young adults: review and update. J Sci Med Sport. 2004;7(1 Suppl):20–9. CrossRef
- van Sluijs EM, McMinn AM, Griffin SJ. Effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity in children and adolescents: systematic review of controlled trials. BMJ. 2007;335(7622):703. CrossRef
- Cliff DP, Wilson A, Okely AD, Mickle KJ, Steele JR. Feasibility of SHARK: a physical activity skill-development program for overweight and obese children. J Sci Med Sport. 2007;10(4):263–7. CrossRef
- Annesi JJ, Faigenbaum AD, Westcott WL, Smith AE, Unruh JL, Hamilton FG. Effects of the Youth Fit For Life protocol on physiological, mood, self-appraisal, and voluntary physical activity changes in African American preadolescents: contrasting after-school care and physical education formats. Int J Clin Health Psychol. 2007;7(3):641–59.
- Taylor RW, McAuley KA, Barbezat W, Strong A, Williams SM, Mann JI. APPLE Project: 2-y findings of a community-based obesity prevention program in primary school-age children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(3):735–42.
- Taylor RW, Mcauley KA, Williams SM, Barbezat W, Nielsen G, Mann JI. Reducing weight gain in children through enhancing physical activity and nutrition: the APPLE project. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2006;1(3):146–52. CrossRef
- Wilson DK, Evans AE, Williams J, Mixon G, Sirard JR, Pate R. A preliminary test of a student-centered intervention on increasing physical activity in underserved adolescents. Ann Behav Med. 2005;30(2):119–24. CrossRef
- Wilson DK, Friend R, Teasley N, Green S, Reaves IL, Sica DA. Motivational versus social cognitive interventions for promoting fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity in African American adolescents. Ann Behav Med. 2002;24(4):310–9. CrossRef
- Moher D, Cook DJ, Eastwood S, Olkin I, Rennie D, Stroup DF. Improving the quality of reports of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials: the QUOROM statement. Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses. Lancet. 1999;354(9193):1896–900. CrossRef
- Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions, version 5.0.2 (updated September 2009). The Cochrane Collaboration; 2009.
- Baranowski T, Anderson C, Carmack C. Mediating variable framework in physical activity interventions. How are we doing? How might we do better? Am J Prev Med. 1998;15(4):266–97. CrossRef
- Interventions to Promote Physical Activity in Young People Conducted in the Hours Immediately After School: A Systematic Review
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Volume 18, Issue 3 , pp 176-187
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Physical activity
- After school
- Author Affiliations
- 1. School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK
- 3. Institute of Youth Sport, School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK
- 2. British Heart Foundation Health Promotion Research Group, Dept of Public Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK