Low Life Course Socioeconomic Status (SES) is Associated with Negative NEO PI-R Personality Patterns
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with poor health. One potential pathway accounting for this relationship may be an association between low SES and personality characteristics that affect health.
Associations among parent's education, current SES (education and income), and personality were examined among 233 African Americans and Caucasian, male and female community volunteers.
Using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to model neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness simultaneously, participant's education, household income, and father's and mother's education each had significant main effects on personality. When examining the life course—the combination of both current and childhood SES—distinctive patterns emerged for each domain, depending upon whether mother's or father's education was used to index childhood SES. When using mother's education as a childhood SES index, a high life course SES (high participant's SES/high mother's education) was associated with high extraversion and openness. Using father's education as a childhood SES index, a low life course SES (low participant's SES/low father's education) was associated with disproportionately high neuroticism and low conscientiousness. These effects did not differ by race or sex.
The implications of these findings for the role of personality in the SES–health relationship are discussed.
- Frank JW, Cohen R, Yen I, Balfour J, Smith M. Socioeconomic gradients in health status over 29 years of follow-up after midlife: the Alameda county study. Soc Sci Med. 2003;57(12):2305–23. CrossRef
- Laaksonen M, Prattala R, Lahelma E. Sociodemographic determinants of multiple unhealthy behaviours. Scand J Public Health. 2003;31(1):37–43.
- Eysenck HJ, Eysenck SBG. Manual of the Eysenck personality questionnaire. Sevenoaks: Hodder and Stoughton; 1975.
- Lazarus RS. Stress and emotion: a new synthesis. New York: Springer; 1999.
- Rosenman RH. Personality, behaviour patterns and heart disease. In: Cooper CL, editor. Handbook of stress, medicine and health. New York: CRC; 1996.
- Smith TW, MacKenzie J. Personality and risk of physical illness. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2006;2:435–67. CrossRef
- Digman JM. Personality structure: emergence of the five-factor model. Annu Rev Psychol. 1990;41:417–40.
- John OP. The “Big Five” factor taxonomy: dimensions of personality in the natural languages and in questionnaires. In: Pervin LA, editor. Handbook of personality: theory and research. New York: Guilford; 1990. p. 66–100.
- McCrae R, Costa P. Trait explanations in personality psychology. Eur J Pers. 1995;9:231–52. CrossRef
- Costa PT, McCrae RR, Psychological Assessment Resources Inc. Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources; 1992.
- McCrae R, Costa P Jr. Personality trait structure as a human universal. Am Psychol. 1997;52:509–16. CrossRef
- Savla J, Davey A, Costa P, Whitfield K. Replicating the NEO-PI-R factor structure in African-American older adults. Pers Individ Dif. 2007;43:1279–88. CrossRef
- Costa PT Jr, Terracciano A, McCrae RR. Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: robust and surprising findings. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2001;81(2):322–31. CrossRef
- Roepke S, McAdams L, Lindamer LA, Patterson TL, Jeste DV. Personality profiles among normal aged individuals as measured by the NEO-PI-R. Aging Ment Health. 2001;5:159–64. CrossRef
- Heath AC, Neale MC, Kessler RC, Eaves LJ, Kendler KS. Evidence for genetic influences on personality from self-reports and informant ratings. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1992;63(1):85–96. CrossRef
- Costa PT Jr, McCrae RR. Domains and facets: hierarchical personality assessment using the revised NEO personality inventory. J Pers Assess. 1995;64(1):21–50. CrossRef
- Avia MD, Sanz J, Sanchez-Bernardos ML, Martinez-Arias MR, Silva F, Grana JL. The five-factor model—II. Relations of the NEO-PI with other personality variable. Pers Individ Dif. 1995;19(1):81–97. CrossRef
- Krueger PM, Chang VW. Being poor and coping with stress: health behaviors and the risk of death. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(5):889–96. CrossRef
- Tsenkova VK, Love G, Singer BH, Ryff CD. Coping and positive affect predict longitudinal change in glycosylated hemoglobin. Health Psychol. 2008;27:163–71. CrossRef
- Bosma H, van de Mheen HD, Mackenbach JP. Social class in childhood and general health in adulthood: questionnaire study of contribution of psychological attributes. BMJ. 1999;318(7175):18–22.
- Barefoot JC, Peterson BL, Dahlstrom WG, Siegler IC, Anderson NB, Williams RB Jr. Hostility patterns and health implications: correlates of Cook-Medley Hostility Scale scores in a national survey. Health Psychol. 1991;10(1):18–24. CrossRef
- Kubzansky L, Kawachi I, Sparrow D. Socioeconomic status, hostility, and risk factor clustering in the normative aging study: any help from the concept of allostatic load? Ann Behav Med. 1999;21(4):330–8. CrossRef
- Harper S, Lynch J, Hsu WL, Everson SA, Hillemeier MM, Raghunathan TE, et al. Life course socioeconomic conditions and adult psychosocial functioning. Int J Epidemiol. 2002;31(2):395–403. CrossRef
- Korner A, Geyer M, Gunzelmann T, Brahler E. The influence of socio-demographic factors on personality dimensions in the elderly. Gerontol Geriatr. 2003;36(2):130–7. CrossRef
- Shipley B, Weiss A, Der G, Taylor M, Deary IJ. Neuroticism, extraversion, and mortality in the UK health and lifestyle survey: a 21-year prospective cohort study. Psychosom Med. 2007;69:923–31. CrossRef
- Suarez EC, Harlan E, Peoples MC, Williams RB Jr. Cardiovascular and emotional responses in women: the role of hostility and harassment. Health Psychol. 1993;12(6):459–68. CrossRef
- Siegman AW, Anderson R, Herbst J, Boyle S, Wilkinson J. Dimensions of anger-hostility and cardiovascular reactivity in provoked and angered men. J Behav Med. 1992;15(3):257–72. CrossRef
- Pearson GL, Freeman FG. Effects of extraversion and mental arithmetic on heart-rate reactivity. Percept Mot Skills. 1991;72(3):1239–48. CrossRef
- Terracciano A, Costa PT Jr. Smoking and the five-factor model of personality. Addiction. 2004;99(4):472–81. CrossRef
- Kuntsche E, Knibbe R, Gmel G, Engels R. Who drinks and why? A review of socio-demographic, personality, and contextual issues behind the drinking motives in young people. Addict Behav. 2006;31(10):1844–57. CrossRef
- Siegler IC, Blumenthal JA, Barefoot JC, Peterson BL, Saunders WB, Dahlstrom WG, et al. Personality factors differentially predict exercise behavior in men and women. Womens Health. 1997;3(1):61–70.
- Williams RB, Marchuk DA, Siegler IC, Barefoot JC, Helms MJ, Brummett BH, et al. Childhood socioeconomic status and serotonin transporter gene polymorphism enhance cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress. Psychosom Med. 2008;70(1):32–9. CrossRef
- Galobardes B, Davey Smith G, Jeffreys M, McCarron P. Childhood socioeconomic circumstances predict specific causes of death in adulthood: the Glasgow student cohort study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2006;60(6):527–9. CrossRef
- Galobardes B, Smith GD, Lynch JW. Systematic review of the influence of childhood socioeconomic circumstances on risk for cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Ann Epidemiol. 2006;16(2):91–104. CrossRef
- Krieger N, Okamoto A, Selby JV. Adult female twins' recall of childhood social class and father's education: a validation study for public health research. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;147(7):704–8.
- Osler M, Andersen AM, Lund R, Holstein B. Effect of grandparent's and parent's socioeconomic position on mortality among Danish men born in 1953. Eur J Public Health. 2005;15(6):647–51. CrossRef
- Bonney JFK, Michelle L, Levant RF. A model of fathers' behavioral involvement in child care in dual-earner families. J Fam Psychol. 1999;13(3):401–15. CrossRef
- Wood JJ, Repetti RL. What gets dad involved? A longitudinal study of change in parental child caregiving involvement. J Fam Psychol. 2004;18(1):237–49. CrossRef
- Burroughs AR, Visscher WA, Haney TL, Efland JR, Barefoot JC, Williams RB Jr, et al. Community recruitment process by race, gender, and SES gradient: lessons learned from the Community Health and Stress Evaluation (CHASE) study experience. J Community Health. 2003;28(6):421–37. CrossRef
- Surwit RS, Williams RB, Siegler IC, Lane JD, Helms M, Applegate KL, et al. Hostility, race, and glucose metabolism in nondiabetic individuals. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(5):835–9. CrossRef
- Williams RB, Marchuk DA, Gadde KM, Barefoot JC, Grichnik K, Helms MJ, et al. Serotonin-related gene polymorphisms and central nervous system serotonin function. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;28(3):533–41. CrossRef
- Power C, Graham H, Due P, Hallqvist J. The contribution of childhood and adult socioeconomic position to adult obesity and smoking behaviour: an international comparison. Int J Epidemiol. 2005;34(2):335–4. CrossRef
- Gallo LC, Matthews KA. Understanding the association between socioeconomic status and physical health: do negative emotions play a role? Psychol Bull. 2003;129(1):10–51. CrossRef
- Adler NE, Boyce T, Chesney MA, Cohen S, Folkman S, Kahn RL, et al. Socioeconomic status and health. The challenge of the gradient. Am Psychol. 1994;49(1):15–24. CrossRef
- Poulton R, Caspi A. Commentary: personality and the socioeconomic-health gradient. Int J Epidemiol. 2003;32(6):975–7. CrossRef
- David JP. Coping efforts in daily life: role of big five traits and problem appraisals. J Pers. 1999;67(2):265–94. CrossRef
- Jonassaint CR, Boyle SH, Williams RB, Mark DB, Siegler IC, Barefoot JC. Facets of openness predict mortality in patients with cardiac disease. Psychosom Med. 2007;69(4):319–22. CrossRef
- Cherry N, Kiernan K. Personality scores and smoking behaviour. A longitudinal study. Br J Prev Soc Med. 1976;30(2):123–31.
- Merenäkk L, Harro M, Kiive E, Laidra K, Eensoo D, Allik J. Association between substance use, personality traits, and platelet MAO activity in preadolescents and adolescents. Addict Behav. 2003;28(8):1507–14. CrossRef
- Blumenthal JA, Williams RS, Wallace AG, Williams RB Jr, Needles TL. Physiological and psychological variables predict compliance to prescribed exercise therapy in patients recovering from myocardial infarction. Psychosom Med. 1982;44(6):519–27.
- de Bruijn GJ, Kremers SP, van Mechelen W, Brug J. Is personality related to fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity in adolescents? Health Educ Res. 2005;20(6):635–44. CrossRef
- Bernard NS, Dollinger SJ, Ramaniah NV. Applying the big five personality factors to the impostor phenomenon. J Pers Assess. 2002;78(2):321–33. CrossRef
- Wilson RS, Mendes de Leon CF, Bienias JL, Evans DA, Bennett DA. Personality and mortality in old age. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2004;59(3):110–6.
- Farley R, Allen W. The color line in the qualtiy of life in America. New York: Oxford University Press; 1987.
- Jaynes G, Williams RJ. A common destiny: blacks and American society. Washington: National Academy Press; 1989.
- Pappas G, Queen S, Hadden W, Fisher G. The increasing disparity in mortality between socioeconomic groups in the United States, 1960 and 1986. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:103–9. CrossRef
- Anderson NB, Armstead CA. Toward understanding the association of socioeconomic status and health: a new challenge for the biopsychosocial approach. Psychosom Med. 1995;57:213–25.
- Low Life Course Socioeconomic Status (SES) is Associated with Negative NEO PI-R Personality Patterns
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Volume 18, Issue 1 , pp 13-21
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Socioeconomic factors
- Social class
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
- 2. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
- 3. Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
- 4. Department of Psychiatry, Behavioral Medicine Research Center, Duke University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2969, Durham, NC, USA