Marine Biodiversity

, Volume 42, Issue 1, pp 73–78

The presence of southern fishes in the Argentinian continental shelf and adjacent areas

Authors

    • Laboratorio de Ictiología, Departamento de Ciencias MarinasUniversidad Nacional de Mar del Plata
  • Santiago A. Barbini
    • Laboratorio de Ictiología, Departamento de Ciencias MarinasUniversidad Nacional de Mar del Plata
    • Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas del Gobierno de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CIC)
  • Daniel E. Figueroa
    • Laboratorio de Ictiología, Departamento de Ciencias MarinasUniversidad Nacional de Mar del Plata
Short Communication

DOI: 10.1007/s12526-011-0088-x

Cite this article as:
Cousseau, M.B., Barbini, S.A. & Figueroa, D.E. Mar Biodiv (2012) 42: 73. doi:10.1007/s12526-011-0088-x
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Abstract

A list of Southern Ocean fishes captured in the Argentinian continental shelf and adjacent areas is presented. The list comprises a total of 41 species. They represent 15% of the ichthyofauna registered in the Southern Ocean. The geographic position of the samples was considered in order to show the northward displacement of some Antarctic species toward southwestern Atlantic waters.

Keywords

Fish distributionSouthern OceanSouthwestern Atlantic

The tip of South America extends almost 20° farther south than any of the other continental masses reaching the circum-Antarctic region (Briggs 1974). Both continents were connected until the early Tertiary through the Scotia Arc (Balech and Ehrlich 2008). The Antarctic Convergence, characterized by great stability, is the northern boundary of the Antarctic area; the permanent occurrence of the convergence makes the Antarctic area one of the most isolated regions of the world. At the longitude of the American continent, the Antarctic Convergence sends two branches that flow northward, one along the west coast of South America, the Humboldt Current, and the other along the east coast, the Malvinas Current. Moreover, near the American continent, at the latitude of Tierra del Fuego and Malvinas Islands, the Antarctic Convergence is more meanderous, and those meanders facilitate the water mixture (Balech and Ehrlich 2008). Because of this, the cold-temperate area of South America is strongly influenced by the Southern Ocean.

The Southern Ocean fish fauna is well known through numerous papers based on research cruises carried out by several countries (Headland 1990). On the other hand, the relationship between the ichthyofaunas of the Antarctic region and the cold-temperate waters of South America is less well known.

The aim of this work is to show the presence of Southern Ocean fishes in the Argentinian continental shelf and adjacent areas, as a contribution to the knowledge of the relationship between the Southern Ocean and South American fish faunas from the ichthyological point of view.

The specimens collected came from the cruises indicated in Table 1, carried out between 1968 and 1998 with fishing boats and research vessels, mainly with the Argentine R/V “Capitán Oca Balda” and “Dr. Eduardo L. Holmberg”, both belonging to the Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP).
Table 1

Cruises from which the species were obtained

Vessel

Type

Cruise

Date

“Martín Fierro”a

RV

Camaronera IV

1968

“Profesor Siedlecki”

RV

Camp. Pesca Exp.

1973

b

RV

Santa Cruz

1973–1974

“Cruz del Sur”

RV

Tierra del Fuego

1974

“Walther Herwig”

RV

No. 3

1978

“Shinkai Maru”

RV

 

1979

“Capitán Oca Balda”

RV

OB 05-87

1987

“Evrika”

RV

No. 25

1988

“Kaiyo Maru”

RV

Evaluación Calamar

1989

“Capitán Oca Balda”

RV

OB 02-91

1991

“Dr. Eduardo L. Holmberg”

RV

EH 01-92

1992

“Capitán Oca Balda”

RV

OB 01-93

1993

“Dr. Eduardo L. Holmberg”

RV

EH 15-94

1994

“Capitán Oca Balda”

RV

OB 09-95

1995

“Capitán Oca Balda”

RV

OB 10-95

1995

“Capitán Oca Balda”

RV

OB 13-95

1995

“Dr. Eduardo L. Holmberg”

RV

EH 08-97

1997

“Aguchi Maru”

FV

Marea 16-97

1997

“El Navegante”

FV

80-0027

1997

“Dr. Eduardo L. Holmberg”

RV

EH 02-98

1998

RV Research vessel, FV fishing vessel

aFishing vessel rented

bObservation from land

Species were identified on board or in the laboratory; we followed Eschmeyer (2010) for an updated taxonomy. The samples are preserved at the INIDEP Fish Collection (Copeia 1996). For each species, information was recorded as follows: catalog number; family; specific scientific name; author; year; number of specimens; size; locality (place name or latitude, longitude and depth); date; collector’s name. Size was recorded as total length and standard length.

The geographical location of the samples is shown in Fig. 1. In order to describe the distribution pattern, fish species were arranged according to two regions or categories. A: Argentine continental shelf and adjacent waters; B: mesopelagic species in the southwestern Atlantic.
https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1007%2Fs12526-011-0088-x/MediaObjects/12526_2011_88_Fig1_HTML.gif
Fig. 1

Map showing the locations where Southern Ocean fishes were collected in the Argentinian continental shelf and adjacent areas. 1 Magellanic Province; 2 Argentine Province

From the continental shelf and adjacent areas, 25 species of Southern Ocean fishes were recorded, belonging to 16 families, mainly notothenioids (families Nototheniidae, Harpagiferidae, Bathylagidae, Bathydraconidae and Channichthyiidae) (Table 2). The most interesting case is Paranotothenia magellanica, captured at 38°S in temperate waters of the Argentinian Biogeographic Province, and far from its more usual area of occurrence, the Magellanic Province (Figueroa et al. 2005). Mesopelagic fishes are represented by species of the families Microstomatidae, Stomiidae, Notosudidae, Paralepididae, Myctophidae, Melamphaidae, Melanonidae and Gempylidae (Table 2). In a description of the mesopelagic fish distribution in the southwestern Atlanctic related to water masses, those species were classified as subantarctic by Figueroa et al. (1998). The abovementioned species represent altogether 15% of the Southern Ocean ichthyofauna, according to Gon and Heemstra (1990).
Table 2

Species preserved at the INIDEP Fish Collection, arranged by families and regions

Cat.

Taxonomic categories

Area

Depth

Col. no.

A

Family Myxinidae

Myxine australis Jenyns, 1842

37°14′S, 54°28′W

230 m

54

Bahía Grande (Prov. Santa Cruz)

0 m

251

Family Petromyzontidae

Geotria australis Gray, 1851

Mar del Plata (38°S)

No data

60

Larva Ammocoetes

Negro river (38°57′S)

Freshwater

543

Macrophtalmia

Choele Choel Island (Prov. Río Negro)

Freshwater

649

Family Dalatiidae

Somniosus antarcticus Whitley, 1939

54°45′S, 62°48′W

913–1,278 m

578

Family Muraenolepididae

Muraenolepis orangiensis Vaillant, 1888

36°48′S, 54°00′W

330 m

469

54°30′S, 61°24′W

140 m

712

Muraenolepis marmoratus Günther, 1880

54°42′S, 60°35′W

330 m

211

Family Moridae

Antimora rostrata (Günther, 1878)

46°53′S, 59°54′W

860 m

430

Lepidion ensiferus (Günther, 1887)

46°53′S, 59°54′W

800 m

431

Halargyreus johnsonii Günther, 1862

54°49′S, 63°07′W

1,350–1,500 m

561

Family Gadidae

Micromesistius australis Norman, 1937

48°45′S, 60°58′W

206 m

207

54°24′S, 55°56′W

400 m

219

54°42′S, 68°20′W

330 m

264

Family Macrouridae

Coelorinchus fasciatus (Günther, 1878)

Beagle Channel

22 m

359

52°36′S, 58°13′W

385 m

427

Coelorinchus marinii Hubbs, 1934

35°42′S, 52°57′W

138 m

433

Family Carapidae

Echiodon criomargarites Markle, Williams & Olney, 1983

51°29′S, 56°25′W

658 m

500

37°43′S, 54°34′W

800 m

648

Family Ceratiidae

Ceratias tentaculatus (Norman, 1930)

39°10′S, 55°28′W

524 m.

377

39°19′S, 55°18′W

780 m

388

47°05′S, 63°15′W

105 m

594

54°49′S, 63°07′W

1,350–1,500 m

595

Family Oreosomatidae

Pseudocyttus maculatus Gilchrist, 1906

37°50′S, 55°01′W

600 m

372

41°22′S, 57°09′W

712 m

379

36°18′S, 53°19′W

700 m

428

37°43′S, 54°34′W

800 m

605

Family Nototheniidae

Dissostichus eleginoides Smitt, 1898

48°56′S, 60°45′W

230 m

208

54°42′S, 60°35′W

330 m

214

50°46′S, 68°06′W

83 m

231

Paranotothenia magellanica (Forster, 1801)

Off Mar del Plata (38°S)

15 m

519

37°30′S, 56°80′W

1.30 m

540

52°24′S, 63°58′W

No data

609

Patagonotothen guntheri (Norman, 1937)

54°18′S, 65°55′W

70 m

533

Family Harpagiferidae

Harpagifer bispinis (Schneider, 1801)

Beagle Channel

No data

759

Harpagifer palliolatus (Richardson, 1845)

Beagle Channel

 

818

Family Bathydraconidae

Bathydraco marri Norman, 1938

54°45′S, 63°07′W

1,350–1,500 m

566

Family Channichthyidae

Chionodraco hamatus (Lönnberg, 1905)

Off Malvinas Islands

No data

443

Family Centrolophidae

Pseudoicichthys australis (Haedrich, 1966)

53°30′S, 61°38′W

423–472 m

525

51°06′S, 67°51′W

No data

530

Family Achiropsettidae

Achiropsetta tricholepis Norman, 1930

46°01′S, 54°30′W

58–0 m

419

Mancopsetta maculata (Günther, 1880)

54°42′S, 60°35′W

330 m

213

41°07′S, 57°04′W

343 m

248

Neoachiropsetta milfordi (Penrith, 1965)

39°10′S, 55°28′W

524 m

371

B

Family Microstomatidae

Nansenia antarctica Kamaguchi & Butler, 1984

39°18′S, 55°20′W

682–702 m

524

Family Bathylagidae

Bathylagus antarcticus Günther, 1878

40°31′S, 45°50′W

80–140 m

413

43°05′S, 54°34′W

1,000 m

515

Bathylagus tenuis Kobyliansky, 1986

37°43′S, 54°34′W

800 m

603

Family Stomiidae

Borostomias antarcticus Lönnberg, 1905

43°05′S, 54°39′W

1,000 m

573

53°37′S, 60°34′W

740 m

586

Stomias gracilis Garman, 1899

43°05′S, 54°39′W

1,000 m

507

Family Notosudidae

Scopelosaurus hamiltoni (Waite, 1916)

54°49′S, 63°07′W

1,350–1,500 m

559

43°28′S, 52°59′W

133–75 m

417

43°01′S, 55°01′W

30 m

778

Family Paralepididae

Magnisudis prionosa Rofen, 1963

53°37′S, 60°34′W

740 m

580

Family Myctophidae

Electrona carlsbergi (Tåning, 1932)

53°27′S, 62°46′W

470 m

607

Gymnoscopelu bolini Andriashev, 1962

46°53′S, 59°54′W

800 m

584

Gymnoscopelus nicholsi (Gilbert, 1911)

40°29′S, 54°26′W

125–75 m

412

53°30′S, 61°38′W

636 m

621

Gymnoscopelus piabilis (Whitley, 1931)

44°57′S, 53°01′W

350–450 m

396

40°29′S, 49°33′W

135–60 m

407

Metelectrona ventralis (Bekker, 1963)

43°05′S , 54°39′W

1,000 m

514

Protomyctophum tenisoni (Norman, 1930)

40°29′S, 49°33′W

135–60 m

400

53°37′S, 60°34′W

740 m

572

Family Melamphaidae

Sio nordenskjoldii (Lönnberg, 1905)

43°05′S, 54°39′W

1,000 m

516

Family Melanonidae

Melanonus gracilis Günther, 1878

43°05′S, 54°39′W

1,000 m

440

Family Gempylidae

 

Paradiplospinus gracilis (Brauer, 1906)

43°05′S, 54°39′W

1,000 m

571

53°37′S, 60°34′W

740 m

579

A Argentine continental shelf and adjacent waters. B Mesopelagic species in the southwestern Atlantic

Col no. Collection number

Balech and Ehrlich (2008) mentioned the close relationship between the ichthyofauna of the Magellanic Province, corresponding to southern South America, and that of the Antarctic continent, characterized by a high endemism at the generic level and also at senior taxonomic categories.

From the comparison of the species listed in Table 2 with those mentioned by Fischer and Hureau (1985) in the FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes, relating to the Southern Ocean, the results are as follows. Among Agnatha, two species are mentioned, Myxine australis and Geotria australis, as inhabitants of the Argentinian continental shelf. Seven species of chondrichthyans are mentioned, two of them common to both areas. The bony fishes amount to a total of 48 species in the work of Fischer and Hureau (1985), 17 of them (35.4 %) having been captured on the Argentinian continental shelf.

Gon and Heemstra (1990) edited a more detailed list of fishes of the Southern Ocean, with a total of 49 families and 273 species described. The Agnatha are the same as mentioned above; one of the four shark species and three of the seven species of skates are also mentioned for the Argentinian continental shelf and adjacent waters according to the list of Cousseau et al. (2010). Of 44 families of bony fishes mentioned in the work of Gon and Heemstra (1990), 35 (79.54%) are represented on the Argentinian continental shelf and inadjacent waters (Cousseau et al. 2010). Of a total of 260 bony fish species of the Southern Ocean, as mentioned by Gon and Heemstra (1990), 64 (24.61%), are represented on the Argentinian continental shelf and in adjacent waters (Cousseau et al. 2010).

It is interesting to remark that 9 of the families of bony fishes mentioned by Gon and Heemstra (1990), (Notacanthidae, Gonostomatidae, Sternoptychidae, Ophidiidae, Oneirodidae, Lampridae, Congiopodidae, Bovichtidae and Scombridae) are present on the Argentinian continental shelf and in adjacent waters, even though they have no species common to the Southern Ocean and the Argentinian continental shelf and adjacent waters (Menni et al. 1984).

The presence of Somniosus antarcticus on the Argentinian continental shelf and adjacent waters is detailed by Díaz de Astarloa et al. (1999).

The most interesting case of dispersion is that of the notothenids. Eastmann (1991) considered Nototheniidae the most speciose family among the notothenioids, and pointed out that its great diversification allows recognition of species of several ecological niches: pelagic, cryopelagic, benthopelagic and benthic. Figueroa et al. (2003) think that, between the Antarctic fishes, the Family Nototheniidae “could be considered as a family in expansion, exceeding all the geographic barriers that confined its Antarctic ancestral habitat, it has settled in the Patagonian shelf and slope, competing with new fish groups and searching new habitats.”

Acknowledgements

The authors thank numerous collectors, the scientific crew on board the research vessels and to the INIDEP scientific staff. Thanks also to L.O. Lucifora for valuable comments and English grammar corrections and two anonymous reviewers for comments that greatly improved the manuscript. S.A. Barbini was supported by scholarship from CIC.

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© Senckenberg, Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer 2011