Review Article

World Journal of Pediatrics

, 7:103

First online:

The puzzling clinical spectrum and course of juvenile sarcoidosis

  • Andrew FretzayasAffiliated withThird Department of Pediatrics, University of Athens, School of Medicine “Attikon” University HospitalThird Department of Pediatrics, “Attikon” University Hospital, Athens University School of Medicine Email author 
  • , Maria MoustakiAffiliated withThird Department of Pediatrics, University of Athens, School of Medicine “Attikon” University Hospital
  • , Olga VougioukaAffiliated withSecond Department of Pediatrics, University of Athens, School of Medicine, “P & A Kyriakou” Children’s Hospital

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Abstract

Background

Juvenile sarcoidosis is a rare, chronic, multisystem, granulomatous disease of obscure etiology which is seen in childhood and adulthood. The disease in childhood has a course different from that in adulthood.

Data sources

PubMed database was searched using terms sarcoidosis, children or childhood sarcoidosis or juvenile sarcoidosis in combination with one of the following terms: epidemiology, clinical manifestations, genetics, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. We also retrieved the terms such as early onset sarcoidosis and Blau syndrome. Furthermore, e-medicine and European Respiratory Society monographs for sarcoidosis were reviewed.

Results

Sarcoidosis in childhood presents with two age dependent, distinct forms. In younger children it is clinically evident before the age of four years and characterized by the triad of rash, arthritis and uveitis. In their older counterparts, the juvenile late onset sarcoidosis involves several organs and its clinical appearance resembles the adult type of the disease, with the respiratory system being most frequently affected (hilar lymphadenopathy, pulmonary infiltrations). Steroid is the main agent of treatment whereas methotrexate is also used for beneficial steroid sparing effects. New, novel therapies may change the outcome of the disease especially in difficult morbid cases.

Conclusions

Sarcoidosis in childhood is recognized as a systemic disease affecting various organs and having diverse clinical course depending on the age of onset.

Key words

corticosteroids early onset sarcoidosis juvenile sarcoidosis late onset sarcoidosis methotrexate