Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 61–68

Molecular MRI of the Cardiovascular System in the Post-NSF Era

Molecular Imaging (ZA Fayad, Section Editor)

DOI: 10.1007/s12410-012-9182-0

Cite this article as:
Sosnovik, D.E. & Caravan, P. Curr Cardiovasc Imaging Rep (2013) 6: 61. doi:10.1007/s12410-012-9182-0


Two new molecular MR imaging agents have been approved for clinical use within the last 3 years, and a third agent has completed phase 2 clinical trials. A wealth of preclinical data is also emerging on the general safety of many molecular MR imaging agents. In addition, since the guidelines to avoid nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) were adopted, at most institutions no new cases of NSF have been reported. Nevertheless, in the post-NSF environment, both those developing and those using molecular MR imaging agents need to be increasingly aware of safety issues. This awareness should begin with the design of the agent and, even in early preclinical studies, the demonstration of both safety and efficacy should be given high priority. In this review we discuss some of the issues relevant to the design of safe molecular MR imaging agents, and highlight the excellent safety profile of those agents that have been used clinically to date.


Molecular imagingMRICardiovascularSafetyGadoliniumIron oxide

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Martinos Center for Biomedical ImagingMassachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of CardiologyMassachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyMassachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA