Actual, Intended, and Appropriate Family Size Among Jews in Israel
- Sergio DellaPergola
- … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Israel’s population reflects a unique combination of large-scale immigration and comparatively high fertility. Demographic trends impact on Israel’s regional and global relations. With a current measure of 3.9 children for Muslims and 2.8 for Jews in 2007, Israel’s fertility stands much above European, American, and some Mid-Eastern countries. This article examines fertility patterns and attitudes among Jews (79% of Israel’s total population) based on a 2005 national survey of women and men at reproductive ages, married or in stable unions. Different demographic, socioeconomic and cultural contexts affect Jewish fertility levels in Israel. The impact of countries of origin and socioeconomic differences greatly diminished over time. Cultural factors, primarily religiosity, continue to be important determinants of a relatively high and stable quest for children. We compare actual, intended, and appropriate (according to the self-perception of respondents) family sizes. Diffuse gaps exist between ideal perceptions (focusing on 3–4 children) and actual performances (2–3 children). Significant gaps also exist between intended and appropriate family size, in both directions—the intended being either higher or lower than the perceived appropriate. Analysis of these discrepancies may provide important clues on the determinants of fertility norms and decisions, and on future family policies.
Supplementary Material (0)
- Abu Libdeh, H., G. Ovensen, and H. Brunborg. 1993. Population characteristics and trends. In Palestinian Society in Gaza, West Bank and Arab Jerusalem: A survey of living conditions, ed. M. Heiberg and G. Ovensen, 35–97. Oslo.
- Anson, J., and A. Meir. 1995. Religiosity, nationalism and fertility in Israel. European Journal of Population 12 (1): 1–25. CrossRef
- Bachi, R. 1977. The population of Israel. Jerusalem.
- Bachi, R. 1980. A population policy for Israel? Jewish Journal of Sociology 22 (2): 163–179.
- Berman, E. 1998. Sect, subsidy and sacrifice: An economist view of ultra-orthodox Jews”. Jerusalem.
- Berman, E., and R. Klinov. 1997. Human capital investment and nonparticipation: Evidence from a sample with infinite horizons (Or: Jewish Father Stops Going to Work). The Maurice Falk Institute for Economic Research in Israel, Research paper 97.05, Jerusalem.
- Bonné-Tamir, B., and A. Adam, eds. 1992. Genetic diversity among Jews: Disease markers at the DNA level. New York.
- Boongarts, J. 1978. A framework for analyzing the proximate determinants of fertility. Population and Development Review 4 (1): 105–133. CrossRef
- Caldwell, J.C. 1981. The mechanisms of population change in historical perspective. Population Studies 35 (1): 5–27. CrossRef
- Coale, A.J. 1975. The demographic transition. In The population debate: Dimensions and perspectives. New York, vol. 1, 347–355.
- DellaPergola, S. 1980. Patterns of American Jewish fertility. Demography 17 (3): 261–273. CrossRef
- DellaPergola, S. 1983. Contemporary Jewish fertility: An overview. In Papers in Jewish demography 1981, ed. U.O. Schmelz, et al., 215–238. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University.
- DellaPergola, S. 1988. Some effects of religion on population trends. Pro Mundi Vita Studies 5: 40–48.
- DellaPergola, S. 1999. World Jewry beyond 2000: The demographic prospects. 78 pp. Oxford.
- DellaPergola, S. 2001. Some fundamentals of Jewish demographic history. In Papers in Jewish demography 1997, ed. S. DellaPergola and J. Even, 11–33. Jerusalem.
- DellaPergola, S. 2003a. Demography in Israel at the dawn of the twenty-first century. In Jews in Israel: Contemporary social and cultural patterns, ed. U. Rebhun and C. Waxman, 20–44. Hanover, London: Brandeis University Press.
- DellaPergola, S. 2003b. Demographic trends in Israel and Palestine: Prospects and policy implications. American Jewish Year Book 103: 3–68.
- DellaPergola, S. 2006. Fertility and population policies in Israel, Paper presented at Symposium on Professor Roberto Bachi’s 10th Anniversary, Jerusalem.
- DellaPergola, S., and L. Cohen, eds. 1992. World Jewish population: Trends and policies. Jerusalem.
- DellaPergola, S., U. Rebhun, and M. Tolts. 2005. Contemporary Jewish diaspora in global context: Human development correlates of population trends. Israel Studies 11 (1): 61–95. CrossRef
- Demeny, P. 2005. Policy challenges of Europe’s demographic changes: From past perspectives to future prospects. In The new demographic regime: Population challenges and policy responses, ed. M. Macura, A.L. MacDonald, and W. Haug, 1–9. New York and Geneva.
- Demographic Center, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. 1992. Population trends and policies in Israel. In World Jewish population: Trends and policies, ed. S. DellaPergola and L. Cohen, 253–267. Jerusalem.
- Eisenbach, Z. 1986. Family planning among the Muslim population of Israel. In Studies in the population of Israel in honor of Roberto Bachi. Scripta Hierosolymitana, vol. 30, ed. U.O. Schmelz and G. Nathan, 1–14. Jerusalem: Magnes Press.
- Fargues, P. 2000. Protracted national conflict and fertility change: Palestinians and Israelis in the twentieth century. Population and Development Review 26: 441–482. CrossRef
- Feldman, D.M. 1968. Birth control in Jewish Law. New York.
- Friedlander, D. 1974. Israel. In Population policy in developed countries, ed. B. Berelson, 42–97. New York.
- Friedlander, D. 2002. Fertility in Israel: Is the transition to replacement level in sight?” In United Nations Secretariat, Division of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, Expert Group Meeting on Completing the Fertility Transition. New York.
- Friedlander, D., Z. Eisenbach, and C. Goldscheider. 1979. Modernization patterns and fertility change: The Arab populations of Israel and the Israel-administered territories. Population Studies 33: 239–254. CrossRef
- Friedlander, D., Z. Eisenbach, and C. Goldscheider. 1980. Family-size limitation and birth spacing: The fertility transition of African and Asian immigrants in Israel. Population and Development Review 6 (4): 581–593. CrossRef
- Friedlander, D., and C. Feldmann. 1993. The modern shift to below-replacement fertility: Has Israel’s population joined the process? Population Studies 47: 295–306. CrossRef
- Friedlander, D., and C. Goldscheider. 1978. Immigration, social change and cohort fertility on Israel. Population Studies 32 (2): 299–317. CrossRef
- Friedlander, D., and and Golscheider. 1979. The population of Israel, New York.
- Friedman, M. 1991. The Haredi Ultra-Orthodox Society: Sources trends and processes. Jerusalem, The Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies (in Hebrew).
- Gauthier, A.H. 2002. Les politiques familiales dans les pays industrialisés: y a-t-il convergence? Population 57 (3): 457–484.
- Goldscheider, C. 1967. Fertility of the Jews. Demography 4: 196–209. CrossRef
- Goldscheider, C., and D. Friedlander. 1986. Reproductive norms in Israel. In Studies in the population of Israel in honor of Roberto Bachi, Scripta Hierosolymitana 30, ed. U.O. Schmelz and G. Nathan, 15–35. Jerusalem.
- Hammel, E.A. 1990. A theory of culture for demography. Population and Development Review 16 (1): 455–481. CrossRef
- Harvard University Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research. 2006. Population projections for socioeconomic development in the Gaza Strip, Working Paper 1, Cambridge, Mass.
- Hill, A.G. 1983. The Palestinian population of the Middle East. Population and Development Review 9: 293–316. CrossRef
- Inglehart, R. 1997. Modernization and postmodernization: Cultural, economic and political change in 43 societies. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- Israel. 1966. Report of the Committee for Natality Problems, Presented to the Prime Minister by the Natality Committee, Jerusalem (Hebrew).
- Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, annual. Statistical abstract of Israel, Jerusalem.
- Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2006. Social survey 2004, Jerusalem.
- Jewish People Policy Planning Institute. 2005. Annual report 2005. Jerusalem.
- Kupinsky, S. 1992a. Fertility trends and policies in low fertility countries and their applicability to Israel. In ed. S. DellaPergola and L. Cohen, World Jewish population: Trends and policies, 276–300. Jerusalem.
- Kupinsky, S. 1992b. Results of the fertility study relevant to a population policy in Israel. In World Jewish population: Trends and policies, ed. S. DellaPergola and L. Cohen, 301–318. Jerusalem.
- Lesthaeghe, R., and G. Moors. 1995. Is there a new conservatism that will bring back the old family? Ideational trends and the stages of family formation in Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands, 1981–1990, Evolution or Revolution in European Population, European Population Conference—1995, vol. 1. 225–266. Milano.
- Lesthaeghe, R., and C. Wilson. 1986. Modes of production, secularization and the pace of fertility. In The decline of fertility in Europe. ed. A.J. Coale and S. Cotts Watkins, 261–292. Princeton.
- Levy, S., H. Levinson, and E. Katz. 2002. A portrait of Israeli Jewry: Beliefs, observances and values among Israeli Jews 2000, Jerusalem.
- Lewin Epstein, N., H. Stier, M. Braun, and B. Langfeldt. 2000. Family policy and public attitudes in Germany and Israel. European Sociological Review 16 (4): 385–401. CrossRef
- Machon Dahaf. 2005. Attitudes and behaviors of the Jewish population in Israel on questions concerning family size (summary of research undertaken by the demographic initiative of the Jewish agency). Tel Aviv (Hebrew).
- Nahmias, P. 2004. Fertility behaviour of recent immigrants to Israel: A comparative analysis of immigrants from Ethiopia and the Former Soviet Union. Demographic Research 10 (4): 83–120. CrossRef
- Okun, B.S. 1997. Innovation and adaptation in fertility transition; Jewish immigrants to Israel from Muslim North Africa and the Middle East. Population Studies 51: 315–335. CrossRef
- Okun, B.S. 2000. Religiosity and contraceptive method choice: The Jewish population of Israel. European Journal of Population 16: 109–132.
- Okun, B.S. 2004. Insight into ethnic flux: Marriage patterns among Jews of mixed ancestry. Demography 41 (1): 173–187. CrossRef
- Oppenheimer, V.K. 1982. Work and the family: A study in social demography. New York.
- Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. 1997. The Demographic Survey in the West Bank and Gaza. Ramallah.
- Peritz, E., and M. Baras, eds. 1992. Studies in the fertility of Israel. Jerusalem.
- Pritchett, L.H. 1994. Desired fertility and the impact of population policies. Population and Development Review 20 (1): 1–55. CrossRef
- Rallu, J.L., Y. Courbage and V. Piché, eds. 1997. Old and new minorities. Paris.
- Ritterband, P. 1992. The fertility of the Jewish people: A contemporary overview. In World Jewish population: Trends and policies, ed. S. DellaPergola and L. Cohen, 93–105. Jerusalem.
- Rosenblum, J. 2004. Self-annihilation. Jerusalem Post International, November 19.
- Schellekens, J., and Z. Eisenbach. 2002. The predecline rise of Israeli Moslem fertility. Economic Development and Cultural Change 50 (3): 541–555. CrossRef
- Schellekens, J., and M. Ophir. 2006. Influence of family allowances and marriage on births (in Hebrew). Jerusalem.
- Schmelz, U.O. 1986. Fertility of Jewish women in the metropolitan areas of Israel, 1972. In Studies in the population of Israel in honor of Roberto Bachi, Scripta Hierosolymitana, ed. U.O. Schmelz and G. Nathan, 30, 89–147. Jerusalem.
- Schmelz, U.O. 1989. Religiosity and fertility among the jews of Jerusalem. In Papers in Jewish demography 1985, 157–185. Jerusalem.
- Shilhav, Y. 1991. A “Shtetel” (Small Town) wthin a modern city: A geography of segregation and acceptance (in Hebrew). Jerusalem: The Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies.
- Spengler, J.J. 1966. Values and fertility analysis. Demography 3 (1): 109–130. CrossRef
- Steinberg, M. 1989. The demographic dimension of the struggle with Israel as seen by the PLO. The Jerusalem Journal of International Relations 11 (4): 27–51.
- The American Jewish Committee, The W. Petushek National Jewish Family Center. 1992. Summary of proposals submitted to the national conference on Jewish population growth, New York 1983. In World Jewish population: Trends and policies, ed. S. DellaPergola and L. Cohen, 323–326. Jerusalem.
- Tolts, M. 1997. The interrelationship between emigration and the socio-demographic profile of Russian Jewry. In Russian Jews on Three Continents, ed. N. Lewin Epstein, Y. Ro’i and P. Ritterband, 147–176. London.
- United Nations Development Programme. 2006. Huan development report 2006—Beyond scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis. New York.
- United Nations, Population Division. 2007. World population prospects. New York.
- van de Kaa, D.J. 1996. Anchored narratives: The story and findings of half a century of research into the determinants of fertility. Population Studies 50 (3): 389–432. CrossRef
- Zach, T., A.K. Pramanik, and S.P. Ford 2007. Multiple births. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/977234-overview.
- Ziegler, I. 1995. Family growth in Israel and the critical child’. Ph.D. diss., The Hebrew University, Jerusalem (unpublished).
- Zlotogora, J., Z. Haklai, N. Rotem, M. Georgi, I. Berlovitz, A. Leventhal, and Y. Amitai. 2003. Relative prevalence of malformations at birth among different religious communities in Israel. American Journal of Medical Genetics 122A (1): 59–62. CrossRef
About this Article
- Actual, Intended, and Appropriate Family Size Among Jews in Israel
Volume 29, Issue 2 , pp 127-152
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Jewish population
- Actual, intended, appropriate family size
- Sergio DellaPergola (1) (2)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. The Avraham Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
- 2. The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute, Jerusalem, Israel