Premalignant lesions in gastric cancer
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- Yashima, K., Sasaki, S., Koda, M. et al. Clin J Gastroenterol (2010) 3: 6. doi:10.1007/s12328-009-0130-8
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Despite a plateau in incidence, gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide and causes considerable morbidity and mortality. Premalignant gastric lesions are well known risk factors for the development of intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinomas. In this multistep model of gastric carcinogenesis, Helicobacter pylori causes chronic active inflammation of the gastric mucosa, which slowly progresses through the premalignant stages of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and adenoma/dysplasia to gastric carcinoma. This progression is paralleled by a stepwise accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic abnormalities. Detection, treatment, and molecular analyses of premalignant lesions may thus provide a basis for gastric cancer prevention. This review describes an overview of current knowledge on premalignant gastric lesions. It also reviews the issue of surveillance of patients with premalignant lesions in order to improve the survival of patients with gastric cancer.