Effects on Lipid Profile of Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibitors, Pioglitazone, Acarbose, and Sulfonylureas: Meta-analysis of Placebo-Controlled Trials
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- Monami, M., Vitale, V., Ambrosio, M.L. et al. Adv Therapy (2012) 29: 736. doi:10.1007/s12325-012-0045-5
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Lipid profile is an important determinant of cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes. It is well known that patients with type 2 diabetes are more likely to be dyslipidemic than the general population. Given the observed connection between glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes, it is conceivable that different glucose-lowering agents can have a varying impact on the lipid profile. When metformin monotherapy fails, other drugs can be added to achieve sufficient glycemic control. Available oral agents include pioglitazone, acarbose, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and insulin secretagogs. The present meta-analysis was designed to assess the effect of DPP-4 inhibitors, pioglitazone, insulin secretagogs, and acarbose on blood lipids when compared to placebo.
An extensive search (any date up to November 1, 2011) was performed for all trials performed on the following classes of drugs: gliptin, insulin secretagogs, pioglitazone, and acarbose. The following endpoints were considered: endpoint total, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides.
The difference in mean total cholesterol values at endpoint versus baseline was significantly higher in patients on pioglitazone, sulfonylureas, and DPP-4 inhibitor treatment (but not on acarbose) than those on placebo, demonstrating that treatment with these drugs (except acarbose) is associated with a significant reduction in total cholesterol. With respect to triglycerides, a significant reduction could be observed with acarbose, pioglitazone, and DPP-4 inhibitors, but not with sulfonylureas. HDL-C appeared to be increased by treatment with acarbose and pioglitazone, and decreased by sulfonylureas.
The present meta-analysis shows that available glucose-lowering drugs may have varying effects on the lipid profile. DPP-4 inhibitors, acarbose, and pioglitazone seem to have a more favorable effect on the lipid profile than sulfonylureas.