Advances in Therapy

, Volume 25, Issue 10, pp 995–1009

Vitamin C metabolites, independent of smoking status, significantly enhance leukocyte, but not plasma ascorbate concentrations

  • Mark A. Moyad
  • Maile A. Combs
  • Angelica S. Vrablic
  • Janet Velasquez
  • Benilda Turner
  • Samuel Bernal
Original Research

DOI: 10.1007/s12325-008-0106-y

Cite this article as:
Moyad, M.A., Combs, M.A., Vrablic, A.S. et al. Adv Therapy (2008) 25: 995. doi:10.1007/s12325-008-0106-y

Abstract

Introduction

The objective of this study was to test the effects of acute doses of vitamin C alone, calcium ascorbate with vitamin C metabolites, and placebo, on total plasma and leukocyte vitamin C concentrations over 24 hours.

Methods

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-way crossover study was performed consisting of four separate phases lasting 24 hours each and utilizing one of four oral 1000-mg preparations within each phase (one of vitamin C alone, two separate vitamin C formulations of calcium ascorbate with vitamin C metabolites, and placebo). There was a 7-day washout between phases, and blood draws at seven time points within each phase of the study for a total of 28 serologic measurements per subject and 420 total measurements for the entire clinical trial. Vitamin C concentration in plasma and leukocytes were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography at baseline and at six sequential time periods over 24 hours.

Results

Fifteen healthy males were enrolled, aged 18–39 years; nine were had never smoked and six were chronic smokers. No significant difference in plasma vitamin C levels was observed when comparing the different preparations. However, at 24 hours, calcium ascorbate with metabolites resulted in significantly higher concentrations of vitamin C in leukocytes (P<0.0001) compared with vitamin C alone. These results were similar for both metabolite formulations, and independent of smoking status.

Conclusion

Regardless of smoking status, vitamin C metabolites may enhance leukocyte utilization of vitamin C itself, despite no consistent difference in plasma levels among the different preparations. A larger clinical investigation is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings, and to determine the clinical relevance of this impact on overall immune function.

Keywords

ascorbic acidcalcium threonateimmune functionvitamin Cmetaboliteswhite blood cells

Copyright information

© Springer Healthcare Communications 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark A. Moyad
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maile A. Combs
    • 1
    • 2
  • Angelica S. Vrablic
    • 1
    • 2
  • Janet Velasquez
    • 1
    • 2
  • Benilda Turner
    • 1
    • 2
  • Samuel Bernal
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity of Michigan Medical CenterAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.San Fernando Valley Program, Sepulveda VA Medical CenterUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Jenkins/Pokempner Director of Preventive & Alternative MedicineUniversity of Michigan Medical Center, Department of UrologyAnn ArborUSA