The Cerebellum

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 575–586

Maternal Thimerosal Exposure Results in Aberrant Cerebellar Oxidative Stress, Thyroid Hormone Metabolism, and Motor Behavior in Rat Pups; Sex- and Strain-Dependent Effects

  • Z. L. Sulkowski
  • T. Chen
  • S. Midha
  • A. M. Zavacki
  • Elizabeth M. Sajdel-Sulkowska
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s12311-011-0319-5

Cite this article as:
Sulkowski, Z.L., Chen, T., Midha, S. et al. Cerebellum (2012) 11: 575. doi:10.1007/s12311-011-0319-5

Abstract

Methylmercury (Met-Hg) and ethylmercury (Et-Hg) are powerful toxicants with a range of harmful neurological effects in humans and animals. While Met-Hg is a recognized trigger of oxidative stress and an endocrine disruptor impacting neurodevelopment, the developmental neurotoxicity of Et-Hg, a metabolite of thimerosal (TM), has not been explored. We hypothesized that TM exposure during the perinatal period impairs central nervous system development, and specifically the cerebellum, by the mechanism involving oxidative stress. To test this, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) or Sprague–Dawley (SD) rat dams were exposed to TM (200 μg/kg body weight) during pregnancy (G10–G15) and lactation (P5–P10). Male and female neonates were evaluated for auditory and motor function; cerebella were analyzed for oxidative stress and thyroid metabolism. TM exposure resulted in a delayed startle response in SD neonates and decreased motor learning in SHR male (22.6%), in SD male (29.8%), and in SD female (55.0%) neonates. TM exposure also resulted in a significant increase in cerebellar levels of the oxidative stress marker 3-nitrotyrosine in SHR female (35.1%) and SD male (14.0%) neonates. The activity of cerebellar type 2 deiodinase, responsible for local intra-brain conversion of thyroxine to the active hormone, 3′,3,5-triiodothyronine (T3), was significantly decreased in TM-exposed SHR male (60.9%) pups. This coincided with an increased (47.0%) expression of a gene negatively regulated by T3, Odf4 suggesting local intracerebellar T3 deficiency. Our data thus demonstrate a negative neurodevelopmental impact of perinatal TM exposure which appears to be both strain- and sex-dependent.

Keywords

EthylmercuryRatCerebellumOxidative stress marker 3-nitrotrosine (3-NT)Type 2 deiodinase (D2)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. L. Sulkowski
    • 1
  • T. Chen
    • 2
  • S. Midha
    • 1
  • A. M. Zavacki
    • 2
  • Elizabeth M. Sajdel-Sulkowska
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryHarvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Thyroid Section, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, Department of MedicineHarvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry BWHHarvard Institute of MedicineBostonUSA