School Mental Health

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 169–177

The Estimated Annual Cost of ADHD to the US Education System

  • Jessica A. Robb
  • Margaret H. Sibley
  • William E. PelhamJr
  • E. Michael Foster
  • Brooke S. G. Molina
  • Elizabeth M. Gnagy
  • Aparajita B. Kuriyan
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s12310-011-9057-6

Cite this article as:
Robb, J.A., Sibley, M.H., Pelham, W.E. et al. School Mental Health (2011) 3: 169. doi:10.1007/s12310-011-9057-6

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine and monetize the educational outcomes of students with ADHD. Data were examined from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, a follow-up study of children diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and recontacted for follow-up in adolescence and young adulthood. A comprehensive educational history was obtained for all participants from Kindergarten through 12th grade. Annual economic impact was derived from costs incurred through special education placement, grade retention, and disciplinary incidents. Results indicated that, as compared to students without ADHD, students with ADHD incurred a higher annual cost to the US Education system. Specifically, a student with ADHD incurred an average annual incremental cost to society of $5,007, as compared with $318 for students in the comparison group. These results suggest that prevention and intervention strategies are greatly needed to offset the large financial impact of educating youth with ADHD.

Keywords

ADHDEducationCost of illness

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jessica A. Robb
    • 1
  • Margaret H. Sibley
    • 1
    • 2
  • William E. PelhamJr
    • 1
  • E. Michael Foster
    • 3
  • Brooke S. G. Molina
    • 4
  • Elizabeth M. Gnagy
    • 1
  • Aparajita B. Kuriyan
    • 1
  1. 1.FIU Center for Children and Families, Department of PsychologyFlorida International UniversityMiamiUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyState University of New York at BuffaloBuffaloUSA
  3. 3.School of Public HealthUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry and PsychologyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA