Reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species and antioxidants in etiopathogenesis of diabetes mellitus type-2
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- Singh, P.P., Mahadi, F., Roy, A. et al. Indian J Clin Biochem (2009) 24: 324. doi:10.1007/s12291-009-0062-6
Diabetes mellitus type-2 (DMT-2) is a hyperglycemic syndrome with several characteristic features. It continues to rise unabatedly in all pockets of the world, parallels with affluence and can be controlled but not cured. It has a definite involvement of genetic component but environmental factors play overwhelmingly dominant role in etiopathogenesis. Insulin resistance (IR) and obesity are singular instigators of DMT-2. The various events cause critical defects in insulin signaling cascade followed by beta-cell dysfunction. Over a period of time, numerous other metabolic aberrations develop, resulting in diabetic complications which could be both vascular (cardiovascular complications, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy and embryopathy) or a-vascular (cataract and glaucoma etc). It has been proposed that all these abnormal events are initiated or activated by a common mechanism of superoxide anion, which is accompanied with generation of a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen specie (RNS) and resultant heightened oxidative stress (OS). Provoked OS causes IR and altered gene expressions. Hyperglycemia induces OS through multiple routes: a)stimulated polyol pathway where in ≤ 30% glucose can be diverted to sorbitol and fructose, b)increased transcription of genes for proinflammatory cytokines and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) c) activation of protein kinase-C (PKC) leading to several molecular changes d)increased synthesis of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) e)changes in a receptor far AGEs and f) autooxidation of glucose with formation of ketoimines and AGEs. All these processes are accompanied with alteration in redox status, ROS, RNS and OS which trigger DMT-2 and its complications. Initial hurriedly planned and executed experimental and clinical studies showed promising results of antioxidant therapies, but recent studies indicate that excess intake/supplement may have adverse outcomes including increased mortality. It is advocated that antioxidants should be given only if preexisting deficiency is present. Selection of antioxidant is another important aspect. Lastly but most importantly the impact of OS is not obligatory but facultative. As such only those diabetic patients will be benefited by antioxidant therapies that have impelling punch of prooxidants.