Current Fungal Infection Reports

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 229-237

First online:

Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia: Current Knowledge and Outstanding Public Health Issues

  • Julie R. HarrisAffiliated withCenters for Disease Control and Prevention Email author 
  • , S. Arunmozhi BalajeeAffiliated withCenters for Disease Control and Prevention
  • , Benjamin J. ParkAffiliated withCenters for Disease Control and Prevention

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Antiretroviral therapy and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis have caused a decline in Pneumocystis jirovecii incidence in developing countries since the 1990s. Nevertheless, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) remains the primary AIDS-defining disease around the world. Much about the disease remains unknown, including its global burden, best diagnostic practices, the frequency of drug resistance, and the risks associated with Pneumocystis colonization. This review describes current knowledge about Pneumocystis infection and highlights areas where new research could benefit public health.


Pneumocystis PCP Jirovecii Carinii Pneumonia HIV Immunosuppressed Fungal DHPS Colonization Prophylaxis Oral washes