Shell-doping of GaAs nanowires with Si for n-type conductivity
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- Dimakis, E., Ramsteiner, M., Tahraoui, A. et al. Nano Res. (2012) 5: 796. doi:10.1007/s12274-012-0263-9
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We demonstrate the potential of using Si as n-type dopant in GaAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The amphoteric behavior of Si that typically accompanies the vapor-liquid-solid growth mode is adequately controlled when a shell doping scheme is utilized instead, i.e. when a Si-doped GaAs shell layer is grown conformally around the undoped GaAs nanowire core in the vapor-solid mode. The incorporation site of Si was evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, and correlated with the growth conditions of the doped shell. In that way, we identified a growth window that ensures the incorporation of Si as donor, and obtained donor concentrations up to 1 × 1019 cm−3, with the compensation level by Si acceptors remaining below 10%. Finally, resistivity measurements on planarized shell-doped nanowire ensembles were employed to probe the doping efficiency and the surface depletion of free-carriers. The achievement of n-type conductivity for nanowires is essential for the realization of functional devices, and is particularly significant when a dopant as well understood and advantageous as Si is employed.