Date: 04 Sep 2012
Envelope retrofit and air-conditioning operational strategies for reduced energy consumption in mosques in hot climates
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Thermal performance of buildings is mainly determined by their thermo-physical and operational characteristics as well as the prevailing climatic conditions. Mosques which represent a unique type of building in terms of construction and operation can be major consumers of cooling energy, particularly in hot climates, if not properly designed and operated. In this study, energy modeling and simulation is utilized to identify potential energy savings due to envelope retrofitting measures and air-conditioning (A/C) operational strategies while maintaining acceptable thermal conditions. Results revealed a good potential for energy reductions when proper thermal retrofitting and operational strategies are employed. As much as 26% reduction in annual cooling energy is obtained when applying roof and wall insulation and reducing air infiltration to 0.5 ACH. By implementing a proper A/C operational strategy and employing system efficiency improvements, the required cooling energy can be reduced by around 36%. The total reduction in cooling energy consumption due to combined A/C system and envelope retrofit measures can be as much as 48%. A number of recommendations pertaining to mosque design, retrofitting and A/C operational strategies are derived. These are expected to be of great use to mosque designers and operators worldwide, but particularly in hot climates.
Abdou AA, Al-Homoud MS, Budaiwi IM (2002). A systematic approach for energy audit in mosques. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Energy Research and Development (pp. 77–86), Kuwait University, Kuwait.
Abdou AA, Al-Homoud MS, Budaiwi IM (2005). Mosque energy performance, Part I: Audit and use trends based on the analysis of electric energy utility billing data. King Abdul-Aziz University Journal of Engineering and Sciences, 16(1): 165–184.
Aktacir MA, Büyükalaca O, Yılmaz T (2010). A case study for influence of building thermal insulation on cooling load and air-conditioning system in the hot and humid regions. Applied Energy, 87: 599–607.CrossRef
Al-Homoud MS, Abdou AA, Budaiwi IM (2005). Mosque energy performance, Part II: Monitoring of end energy uses in a hot-humid climate. King Abdul-Aziz University Journal of Engineering and Sciences, 16(1): 185–202.
Al-Homoud MS, Abdou AA, Budaiwi IM (2009). Assessment of monitored energy use and thermal comfort conditions in mosques in hot-humid climates. Energy and Buildings, 41: 607–614.CrossRef
Arabian Gulf Cooperation Council, AGCC (1984). Regulations for thermal insulation for buildings, Doha, Qatar. Gulf Countries Electric Energy Conservation Committee, Section II, Item 2, 30–31
ASHRAE (2003). ASHRAE Applications Handbook. Atlanta, USA: American Society of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.
ASHRAE (2009). ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook (SI). Climatic design information, Chapter 14, p. 43. Atlanta, USA: American Society of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.
Bou-Saada TE, Haberl J (1995). A Weather-day-typing procedure for disaggregating hourly end-use loads in an electrically heated and cooled building from whole building hourly data. In: Proceedings of the 30th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Orlando, USA.
Carroll WL, Hitchock RJ (1993). Tuning simulated building descriptions to match actual utility data: methods and implementations. ASHRAE Transactions, 99(2): 928–934.
Chidiac SE, Catania EJC, Morofsky E, Foo S (2011). Effectiveness of single and multiple energy retrofit measures on the energy consumption of office buildings. Energy, 36: 5037–5052CrossRef
Chowdhury AA, Rasul MG, Khan MMK (2008). Thermal-comfort analysis and simulation for various low-energy cooling-technologies applied to an office building in a subtropical climate. Applied Energy, 85: 449–462.CrossRef
DOE (2010). DOE Simulation Program, Available via http://www.archenergy.com/products/visualdoe. Accessed 15 Jan. 2011.
Al-ajmi FF (2010). Thermal comfort in air-conditioned mosques in the dry desert climate. Building and Environment, 45: 2407–2413.CrossRef
Habeebullah BA (2007). Economic feasibility of thermal energy storage systems. Energy and Buildings, 39: 355–363.CrossRef
Han HJ, Jeon YI, Lim SH, Kim WW, Chen K (2010). New developments in illumination, heating and cooling technologies for energy-efficient buildings. Energy, 35: 2647–2653CrossRef
Pan Y, Huang Z, Wu G (2007). Calibrated building energy simulation and its application in a high-rise commercial building in Shanghai. Energy and Buildings, 39: 651–657.CrossRef
Perez YV, Capeluto IG (2009). Climatic considerations in school building design in the hot-humid climate for reducing energy consumption. Applied Energy, 86: 340–348.CrossRef
Radhi H (2009). Can envelope codes reduce electricity and CO2 emissions in different types of buildings in the hot climate of Bahrain? Energy, 34: 205–215.CrossRef
Radhi H, Eltrapolsi A, Sharples S (2009). Will energy regulations in the Gulf states make buildings more comfortable—A scoping study of residential buildings. Applied Energy, 86: 2531–2539.CrossRef
Rahman MM, Rasul MG, Khan MMK (2010). Energy conservation measures in an institutional building in sub-tropical climate in Australia. Applied Energy, 87: 2994–3004.CrossRef
SEC (2009). Saudi Electric Company (SEC) Annual Report 2009. In: http://www.se.com.sa/SEC/English/Panel/Reports/. Accessed: 15 May 2012.
Schuldt M, Romberger J (1998). Alternative approaches to baseline estimation using calibrated simulations, ASHRAE Transactions, 104(2): 871–879.
- Envelope retrofit and air-conditioning operational strategies for reduced energy consumption in mosques in hot climates
Volume 6, Issue 1 , pp 33-50
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Tsinghua Press
- Additional Links
- intermittent operation
- energy savings
- thermal comfort
- hot-humid climate