Latest research and development trends in non-insulin anti-diabetics
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- Cheon, H.G. Arch. Pharm. Res. (2013) 36: 145. doi:10.1007/s12272-013-0016-7
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus, also called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, is a chronic endocrine disease characterized by insulin resistance in tissues such as fat, liver and skeletal muscle, and impaired insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. The prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes exploded over last decades along with increased population obesity owing to western lifestyle factors such as lack of exercise and high calorie diets. As diabetes progresses without appropriate treatment, many micro- and macro-vascular complications occur, leading to increased risk of mortality. Although lifestyle modifications including a healthier diet and more frequent exercise are suggested as initial therapy for type 2 diabetes, pharmacotherapy is required in many cases. Currently, several anti-diabetic drugs with different mechanisms of action are available, but increased effectiveness and tolerability are a still unmet need for diabetes pharmacotherapy. Thus, the development of new anti-diabetic drugs is an active research area in both academia and the pharmaceutical industry. This review focuses on the targets in the latest developments of non-insulin anti-diabetics that attract the most interest in this disease area.