Circulating MicroRNAs as Novel Biomarkers for the Early Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome
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- Deddens, J.C., Colijn, J.M., Oerlemans, M.I.F.J. et al. J. of Cardiovasc. Trans. Res. (2013) 6: 884. doi:10.1007/s12265-013-9493-9
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Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are important physiological regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression. miRNAs not only reside in the cytoplasm but are also stably present in several extracellular compartments, including the circulation. For that reason, miRNAs are proposed as diagnostic biomarkers for various diseases. Early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), especially non-ST elevated myocardial infarction and unstable angina pectoris, is essential for optimal treatment outcome, and due to the ongoing need for additional identifiers, miRNAs are of special interest as biomarkers for ACS. This review highlights the nature and cellular release mechanisms of circulating miRNAs and therefore their potential role in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. We will give an update of clinical studies addressing the role of circulating miRNA expression after myocardial infarction and explore the diagnostic value of this potential biomarker.