Vitamin D Deficiency in Early Life and the Potential Programming of Cardiovascular Disease in Adulthood


DOI: 10.1007/s12265-013-9475-y

Cite this article as:
Gezmish, O. & Black, M.J. J. of Cardiovasc. Trans. Res. (2013) 6: 588. doi:10.1007/s12265-013-9475-y


Vitamin D deficiency is a major worldwide public health problem affecting people of all ages, from infants to the elderly. Of particular concern is the high incidence of vitamin D deficiency in women during pregnancy and lactation, leading to the exposure of the growing fetus/infant to inadequate levels of vitamin D, which is essential for normal development. Vitamin D deficiency in adulthood is linked to the etiology of hypertension and to a multitude of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. It is now well-established that the antecedents of cardiovascular disease can originate very early in life. The purpose of this review is to highlight how maternal vitamin D deficiency, and its effects in upregulating the fetal renin–angiotensin system and altering cardiomyocyte growth in the fetal heart, has the potential to program long-term vulnerability to cardiovascular disease.


Maternal vitamin D deficiency Cardiomyopathy Vitamin D deficiency Cardiomyocytes Heart failure Renin–angiotensin system 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anatomy and Developmental BiologyMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia

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