The Clinical Anatomy and Pathology of the Human Atrioventricular Valves: Implications for Repair or Replacement
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- Bateman, M.G., Quill, J.L., Hill, A.J. et al. J. of Cardiovasc. Trans. Res. (2013) 6: 155. doi:10.1007/s12265-012-9437-9
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A critical understanding of cardiac anatomy is essential for design engineers and clinicians with the intent of developing and/or employing improved or novel technologies or therapies for treating an impaired atrioventricular valve. Likewise, such knowledge is required for directing translational research, including initiating preclinical research, assessing the feasibility of clinical trials, and performing first-in-man procedures. There are two atrioventricular valves in the human heart, namely the tricuspid and mitral valves. Both are complex structures whose normal anatomies can vary greatly amongst individuals, and also become modified by disease processes. In this review, we discuss the anatomy, pathology, and issues related to surgical and transcatheter repair of the atrioventricular valves in a translational manner. This article is part of a JCTR special issue on Cardiac Anatomy.