Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research

, Volume 5, Issue 5, pp 689–699

What’s New in Regenerative Medicine: Split up of the Mesenchymal Stem Cell Family Promises New Hope for Cardiovascular Repair

  • Rosa Vono
  • Gaia Spinetti
  • Miriam Gubernator
  • Paolo Madeddu
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s12265-012-9395-2

Cite this article as:
Vono, R., Spinetti, G., Gubernator, M. et al. J. of Cardiovasc. Trans. Res. (2012) 5: 689. doi:10.1007/s12265-012-9395-2

Abstract

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is exceedingly prevalent and requires care optimization. Regenerative medicine holds promise to improve the clinical outcome of CAD patients. Current approach consists in subsidizing the infarcted heart with boluses of autologous stem cells from the bone marrow. Moreover, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are in the focus of intense research owing to an apparent superiority in plasticity and regenerative capacity compared with hematopoietic stem cells. In this review, we report recent findings indicating the presence, within the heterogeneous MSC population, of perivascular stem cells expressing typical pericyte markers. Moreover, we focus on recent research showing the presence of similar cells in the adventitia of large vessels. These discoveries were fundamental to shape a roadmap toward clinical application in patients with myocardial ischemia. Adventitial stem cells are ideal candidates for promotion of cardiac repair owing to their ease of accessibility and expandability and potent vasculogenic activity.

Keywords

Coronary artery diseaseRegenerative medicineMesenchymal stem cellsPericytes

Abbreviations

aMI

Acute myocardial infarction

ATMP

Advanced therapy medicinal product

ANP

Atrial natriuretic peptide

BM

Bone marrow

BMP-2

Bone morphogenetic protein 2

CO

Cardiac output

CPCs

Cardiac progenitor cells

CSCs

Cardiac stem cells

cTnT

Cardiac troponin

CABG

Coronary artery bypass graft

CAD

Coronary artery disease

CLI

Critical limb ischemia

FA-MSCs

Foetal aorta-derived mesenchymal stem cells

EGM2

Endothelial growth medium

EMEA

European Medicine Agency

HF

Heart failure

HGF

Hepatocyte growth factor

hMSCs

Human MSCs

HTA

Human Tissue Authority

IGF-1

Insulin-like growth factor 1

sLex

Lewisx

LVEF

Left ventricular ejection fraction

MSCs

Mesenchymal stem cells

MeCP2

Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2

miR-132

microRNA-132

(β-MHC)

β-myosin heavy chain

MHRA

Medicine and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency

NHSBT

National Health System Blood and Transplant

Dll4

Notch delta-like 4 ligand

PB

Peripheral blood

PDGF-BB

Platelet-derived growth factor-BB

PODXL

Podocalyxin-like protein 1

PSGL-1

P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1

RasGAP

Ras-GTPase activating protein

SOP

Standard operating protocol

SDF-1

Stromal cell-derived factor-1

TGFβ1

Transforming growth factor β1

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

vWF

von Willerbrand Factor

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosa Vono
    • 1
  • Gaia Spinetti
    • 1
  • Miriam Gubernator
    • 2
  • Paolo Madeddu
    • 2
  1. 1.Multimedica IRCCSMilanItaly
  2. 2.Experimental Cardiovascular Medicine, Regenerative Medicine Section, Bristol Heart InstituteSchool of Clinical Sciences, University of BristolBristolUK