CYP2E1 potentiation of LPS and TNFα-induced hepatotoxicity by mechanisms involving enhanced oxidative and nitrosative stress, activation of MAP kinases, and mitochondrial dysfunction
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- Lu, Y. & Cederbaum, A.I. Genes Nutr (2010) 5: 149. doi:10.1007/s12263-009-0150-5
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The mechanisms by which alcohol causes cell injury are not clear. A major mechanism that is the focus of considerable research is the role of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in alcohol toxicity. Many pathways have been suggested to play a role in how alcohol induces oxidative stress. Considerable attention has been given to alcohol-elevated production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TNFα and to alcohol induction of CYP2E1. These two pathways are not exclusive of each other, however, associations and interactions between them, especially in vivo, have not been extensively evaluated. We have shown that increased oxidative stress from induction of CYP2E1 in vivo sensitizes hepatocytes to LPS and TNF toxicity and that oxidants, such as peroxynitrite, activation of p38 and JNK MAP kinases, inactivation of NF-kB protective pathways and mitochondrial dysfunction are downstream mediators of this CYP2E1-LPS/TNF potentiated hepatotoxicity. This review will summarize studies showing potentiated interactions between these two risk factors in promoting liver injury and the mechanisms involved.