Alterations of the CD4+, CD8+ T Cell Subsets, Interleukins-1β, IL-10, IL-17, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis: Preliminary Observations
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- Hussein, M.R., Fathi, N.A., El-Din, A.M.E. et al. Pathol. Oncol. Res. (2008) 14: 321. doi:10.1007/s12253-008-9016-1
Rheumatoid arthritis is a multisystem disease with underlying immune mechanisms. Osteoarthritis is a debilitating, progressive disease of diarthrodial joints associated with the aging process. Although much is known about the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, our understanding of some immunologic changes remains incomplete. This study tries to examine the numeric changes in the T cell subsets and the alterations in the levels of some cytokines and adhesion molecules in these lesions. To accomplish this goal, peripheral blood and synovial fluid samples were obtained from 24 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 15 patients with osteoarthritis and six healthy controls. The counts of CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes were examined using flow cytometry. The levels of some cytokines (TNF-α, IL1-β, IL-10, and IL-17) and a soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) were measured in the sera and synovial fluids using enzyme linked immunosorbant assay. We found some variations in the counts of T cell subsets, the levels of cytokines and sICAM-1 adhesion molecule between the healthy controls and the patients with arthritis. High levels of IL-1β, IL-10, IL-17 and TNF-α (in the serum and synovial fluid) were observed in arthritis compared to the healthy controls. In rheumatoid arthritis, a high serum level of sICAM-1 was found compared to its level in the synovial fluid. A high CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio was found in the blood of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In rheumatoid arthritis, the cytokine levels correlated positively with some clinicopathologic features. To conclude, the development of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis is associated with alteration of the levels of some cytokines. The assessment of these immunologic changes may have potential prognostic roles.