HIV and HCV: from Co-infection to epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, and treatment
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the infectious agent causing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a deadliest scourge of human society. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major causative agent of chronic liver disease and infects an estimated 170 million people worldwide, resulting in a serious public health burden. Due to shared routes of transmission, co-infection with HIV and HCV has become common among individuals who had high risks of blood exposures. Among hemophiliacs the co-infection rate accounts for 85%; while among injection drug users (IDU) the rate can be as high as 90%. HIV can accelerate the progression of HCV-related liver disease, particularly when immunodeficiency has developed. Although the effect of HCV on HIV infection is controversial, most studies showed an increase in mortality due to liver disease. HCV may act as a direct cofactor to fasten the progression of AIDS and decrease the tolerance of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HARRT). Conversely, HAART-related hepatotoxicity may enhance the progression of liver fibrosis. Due to above complications, co-infection with HCV and HIV-1 has imposed a critical challenge in the management of these patients. In this review, we focus on the epidemiology and transmission of HIV and HCV, the impact of the two viruses on each other, and their treatment.
- Alter M J. 2002. Prevention of spread of hepatitis C. Hepatology, 36: S93–98. CrossRef
- Brandee L. 2003. Influence of maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV): a meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol, 32: 727–734. CrossRef
- Brau N, Salvatore M, Rios-Bedoya C F, et al. 2006. Slower fibrosis progression in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with successful HIV suppression using antiretroviral therapy. J Hepatol, 44: 47–55. CrossRef
- Busch M P, Kleinman S H, Jackson B, et al. 2000. Nucleic acid amplification testing of blood donors for transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases: report of the Interorganizational Task Force on Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing of Blood Donors. Transfusion, 40: 143–159. CrossRef
- Busch M P. 2001. Closing the windows on viral transmission by blood transfusion. In: Blood safety in the new millennium (Stramer S L. ed.). AABB Press: Bethesda. p33–54.
- Cardo D M, Culver D H, Ciesielski C A, et al. 1997. A case-control study of HIV seroconversion in health care workers after percutaneous exposure. New Engl J Med, 337: 1485–1490. CrossRef
- Crespo M, Sauleda S, Esteban J I, et al. 2007. Peginterferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin vs interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in HIV-coinfected patients. J Viral Hepatitis, 14: 228–238. CrossRef
- Daar E S, Lynn H, Donfield S, et al. 2001. Hepatitis C virus load is associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 disease progression in hemophiliacs. J Infect Dis, 183: 589–595. CrossRef
- Darby S C, Ewart D W, Giangrande P L, et al. 1997. Mortality from liver cancer and liver disease in haemophilic men and boys in UK given blood products contaminated with hepatitis C. UK Haemophilia Centre Directors’ Organisation. Lancet, 350: 1425–1431. CrossRef
- Di Bisceglie A M. 2000. Natural history of hepatitis C: its impact on clinical management. Hepatology, 31: 1014–1018. CrossRef
- Dimitrakopoulos A, Takou A, Haida A, et al. 2000. The prevalence of hepatitis B and C in HIV-positive Greek patients: relationship to survival of deceased AIDS patients. J Infection, 40: 127–131. CrossRef
- Fainboim H, Gonzalez J, Fassio E, et al. 1999. Prevalence of hepatitis viruses in an anti-human immunodeficiency virus-positive population from Argentina. A multicentre study. J Viral Hepatitis, 6: 53–57. CrossRef
- Fialaire P, Payan C, Vitour D, et al. 1999. Sustained disappearance of hepatitis C viremia in patients receiving protease inhibitor treatment for human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis, 180: 574–575. CrossRef
- Gavazzi G, Richallet G, Morand P, et al. 1998. Effects of double and triple antiretroviral agents on the HCV viral load in patients coinfected with HIV and HCV. Patho Biol, 46: 412–415.
- Giordano T P, Kramer J R, Souchek J, et al. 2004. Cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in HIV-infected veterans with and without the hepatitis C virus: a cohort study, 1992–2001. Arch Intern Med, 164: 2349–2354. CrossRef
- Greub G, Ledergerber B, Battegay M, et al. 2000. Clinical progression, survival, and immune recovery during antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus coinfection: the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Lancet, 356: 1800–1805. CrossRef
- Hoffmann C, Rockstroh J, Kamps B S. 2005. HIV and HBV/HCV Coinfections, Paris, Cagliari, Wuppertal, Sevilla: Flying Publisher, 487.
- Landesman S H, Kalish L A, Burns D N, et al. 1996. Obstetrical factors and the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from mother to child. The Women and Infants Transmission Study. New Engl J Med, 334: 1617–1623. CrossRef
- Lauer G M, Nguyen T N, Day C L, et al. 2002. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-hepatitis C virus coinfection: intraindividual comparison of cellular immune responses against two persistent viruses. J Virol, 76: 2817–2826. CrossRef
- Lesens O, Deschenes M, Steben M, et al. 1999. Hepatitis C virus is related to progressive liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus-positive hemophiliacs and should be treated as an opportunistic infection. J Infect Dis, 179: 1254–1258. CrossRef
- Macias J, Castellano V, Merchante N, et al. 2004. Effect of antiretroviral drugs on liver fibrosis in HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C: harmful impact of nevirapine. AIDS, 18: 767–774. CrossRef
- Marcellin P, Boyer N, Gervais A, et al. 1997. Long-term histologic improvement and loss of detectable intrahepatic HCV RNA in patients with chronic hepatitis C and sustained response to interferonalpha therapy. Ann Intern Med, 127: 875–881.
- Matthews-Greer J M, Caldito G C, Adley S D, et al. 2001. Comparison of hepatitis C viral loads in patients with or without human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Diagn Lab Immun, 8: 690–694. CrossRef
- Mauss S, Rockstroh J K. 2005. HCV/HIV-coinfection—is there a state of the art after APRICOT and RIBAVIC? J Antimicrob Chemoth, 56: 615–618. CrossRef
- McHutchison J G, Gordon S C, Schiff E R, et al. 1998. Interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with ribavirin as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatitis Interventional Therapy Group. N Engl J Med, 339: 1485–1492. CrossRef
- Mohsen A H, Easterbrook P J, Taylor C, et al. 2003. Impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on the progression of liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus infected patients. Gut, 52: 1035–1040. CrossRef
- National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement. 2002. Management of hepatitis C. Hepatology, 36(5 Suppl 1): S3–20.
- Neau D, Trimoulet P, Winnock M, et al. 2001. Impact of protease inhibitors on intrahepatic hepatitis C virus viral load. AIDS, 15: 1736–1738. CrossRef
- Poynard T., Marcellin P., Lee S S, et al. 1998. Randomised trial of interferon alpha2b plus ribavirin for 48 weeks or for 24 weeks versus interferon alpha2b plus placebo for 48 weeks for treatment of chronic infection with hepatitis C virus. International Hepatitis Interventional Therapy Group (IHIT). Lancet, 352: 1426–1432. CrossRef
- Ragni M V, Bontempo F A. 1999. Increase in hepatitis C virus load in hemophiliacs during treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis, 180: 2027–2029. CrossRef
- Rancinan C, Neau D, Saves M, et al. 2002. Is hepatitis C virus co-infection associated with survival in HIV-infected patients treated by combination antiretroviral therapy? AIDS, 16: 1357–1362. CrossRef
- Rutschmann O T., Negro F., Hirschel B, et al. 1998. Impact of treatment with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors on hepatitis C viremia in patients coinfected with HIV. J Infect Dis, 177: 783–785. CrossRef
- Sherman K E, Rouster S D, Chung R T, et al. 2002. Hepatitis C virus prevalence among patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus: a cross-sectional analysis of the U.S. adult AIDS clinical trials group. Clin Infect Dis, 34: 831–837. CrossRef
- Sherman M, Yoshida E M, Deschenes M, et al. 2006. Peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD) plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitiss C patients who failed previous interferon therapy. Gut, 55:1631–1638. CrossRef
- Shiratori Y, Imazeki F, Moriyama M, et al. 2000. Histologic improvement of fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C who have sustained response to interferon therapy. Ann Intern Med, 132: 517–524.
- Soriano V, Bravo R, García-Samaniego J, et al. 1997. Relapses of chronic hepatitis C in HIV-infected patients who responded to interferon therapy. Hepatitis/HIV Spanish Study Group. [Letter]. AIDS, 11: 400–401.
- Soto B, Rodrigo L, Garcia-Bengoechea M, et al. 1994. Heterosexual transmission of hepatitis C virus and the possible role of coexistent human immunodeficiency virus infection in the index case. A multicentre study of 423 pairings. J Intern Med, 236: 515–519. CrossRef
- Staples C T Jr, Rimland D, Dudas D. 1999. Hepatitis C in the HIV (human immuno-deficiency virus) Atlanta V. A. (Veterans Affairs Medical Center) Cohort Study (HAVACS): the effect of coinfection on survival. Clin Infect Dis, 29: 150–154. CrossRef
- Strasfeld L, Yungtai L O, Netski D, et al. 2003. The association of hepatitis C prevalence, activity, and genotype with HIV infection in a cohort of New York City drug users. JAIDS, 33: 356–364.
- Sulkowski M S, Moore R D, Mehta S H, et al. 2002. Hepatitis C and progression of HIV disease. JAMA, 288: 199–206. CrossRef
- Tedaldi E M, Baker R K, Moorman A C, et al. 2003. Influence of coinfection with hepatitis C virus on morbidity and mortality due to human immunodeficiency virus infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis, 36: 363–367. CrossRef
- Tedaldi E M, Hullsiek K H, Malvestutto C D, et al. 2003. Prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis C virus coinfection in a human immunodeficiency virus clinical trials group: the Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS. Clin Infect Dis, 36:1313–1317. CrossRef
- Tedeschi R, Pivetta E, Zanussi S, et al. 2003. Quantification of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in liver specimens and sera from patients with human immunodeficiency virus coinfection by using the versant HCV RNA 3.0 (Branched DNA-Based) DNA assay. J Clin Microbiol, 41: 3046–3050. CrossRef
- Thomas D L, Vlahov D, Solomon L, et al. 1995. Correlates of hepatitis C virus infections among injection drug users. Medicine, 74:212–220. CrossRef
- Thomas D L, Astemborski J, Rai R M, et al. 2000. The natural history of hepatitis C virus infection: host, viral, and environmental factors. JAMA, 284: 450–456. CrossRef
- Torre D, Tambini R, Cadario F, et al. 2001. Evolution of coinfection with human immuno-deficiency virus and hepatitis C virus in patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis, 33: 1579–1585. CrossRef
- Torriani F J, Soriano V. 2000. Chronic hepatitis C in HIVinfected individuals. AIDS Reviews, 2:168–177.
- Trimoulet P, Neau D, Le Bail B, et al. 2002. Intrahepatic HCV RNA loads in 37 HIV-HCV co-infected patients with controlled HIV infection. J Med Virol, 67: 143–151. CrossRef
- Velati C, Romano L, Baruffi L, et al. 2002. Residual risk of transfusion-transmitted HCV and HIV infections by antibody-screened blood in Italy. Transfusion, 42:989–993. CrossRef
- Verma S, Wang C H, Govindarajan S, et al. 2006. Do type and duration of antiretroviral therapy attenuate liver fibrosis in HIV-hepatitis C viruscoinfected patients? Clin Infect Dis, 42: 262–270. CrossRef
- Wright T L, Hollander H, Pu X, et al. 1994. Hepatitis C in HIV infected patients with and without AIDS: prevalence and relationship to patient survival. Hepatology, 20: 1152–1155.
- Yee T T, Griffioen A, Sabin C A, et al. 2000. The natural history of HCV in a cohort of hemophilic patients infected between 1961 and 1985. Gut, 47: 845–851. CrossRef
- Yokozaki S, Takamatsu J, Nakano I, et al. 2000. Immunologic dynamics in hemophiliac patients infected with hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus: influence of antiretroviral therapy. Blood, 96: 4293–4299.
- Zhang C, Yang R, Xia X, et al. 2002. High prevalence of HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus coinfection among injection drug users in the southeastern region of Yunnan, China. JAIDS, 29: 191–196.
- Zylberberg H, Benhamou Y, Lagneaux J L, et al. 2000. Safety and efficacy of interferon-ribavirin combination therapy in HCV-HIV coinfected subjects: an early report. Gut, 47: 694–697. CrossRef
- HIV and HCV: from Co-infection to epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, and treatment
Volume 22, Issue 6 , pp 443-450
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- SP Wuhan Institute of Virology, CAS
- Additional Links
- Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV)