Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen, Soluble Reactive Phosphorous, and Microbial Pollutant Loading from Tropical Rural Watersheds in Hawai'i to the Coastal Ocean During Non-Storm Conditions
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This study quantifies dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), soluble reactive phosphorous (SRP), and microbial pollutant inputs to a tropical embayment, Hanalei Bay, Kaua'i, Hawai'i from rural watersheds during two field excursions during non-storm conditions. We employ land cover analysis and a suite of nucleic acid fecal source tracking markers (host-specific Bacteroidales and human enterovirus) to identify sources of pollutants to the bay. The highest concentrations of DIN and SRP are in streams draining watersheds with large areas of cultivated land, suggesting fertilizer is a source of these nutrients to the streams and coastal waters. Pollutant areal loading correlates with the fractions of urban and cultivated land cover. Microbial source tracking indicates the presence of human, pig, and ruminant feces in the streams. This work provides preliminary evidence that human development affects loading of DIN, SRP, and microbial pollutants to tropical coastal waters; further study is needed to confirm this. Additionally, results point to a mix of microbial pollutant sources.
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- Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen, Soluble Reactive Phosphorous, and Microbial Pollutant Loading from Tropical Rural Watersheds in Hawai'i to the Coastal Ocean During Non-Storm Conditions
Estuaries and Coasts
Volume 34, Issue 5 , pp 925-936
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Microbial pollution
- Microbial source tracking
- Tropical streams
- Inorganic nitrogen
- Pollutant loading
- Pollutant flux
- Hanalei Bay
- Rural tropical watersheds
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Environmental and Water Studies, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, 473 Via Ortega, Y2E2 Building Room 189, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA
- 4. Southern California Coastal Research Project, 3535 Harbor Blvd., Suite 110, Costa Mesa, CA, 92626, USA
- 2. Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA
- 3. The Waipā Foundation, Hanalei, Kauai, HI, USA