Kew Bulletin

, Volume 65, Issue 2, pp 279–303

New species of Dypsis and Ravenea (Arecaceae) from Madagascar

Authors

    • Royal Botanic Gardens
  • John Dransfield
    • Royal Botanic Gardens
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s12225-010-9210-7

Cite this article as:
Rakotoarinivo, M. & Dransfield, J. Kew Bull (2010) 65: 279. doi:10.1007/s12225-010-9210-7

Summary

Fourteen new species of palms (Arecaceae) from Madagascar are described and named, based on material collected over the last 15 years. Twelve species belong to the genus Dypsis, namely D. andilamenensis Rakotoarin. & J. Dransf., D. anjae Rakotoarin. & J. Dransf., D. betsimisarakae Rakotoarin. & J. Dransf., D. culminis Rakotoarin. & J. Dransf., D. dracaenoides Rakotoarin. & J. Dransf., D. gautieri Rakotoarin. & J. Dransf., D. gronophyllum Rakotoarin. & J. Dransf., D. jeremiei Rakotoarin. & J. Dransf., D. metallica Rakotoarin. & J. Dransf., D. reflexa Rakotoarin. & J. Dransf., D. sancta Rakotoarin. & J. Dransf. and D. vonitrandambo Rakotoarin. & J. Dransf. and two species belong to the genus Ravenea: R. beentjei Rakotoarin. & J. Dransf. and R. hypoleuca Rakotoarin. & J. Dransf. Despite the fact that most of these species have been recorded from protected areas that are difficult to access in the eastern region of Madagasacar, they are all threatened. Based on IUCN categories and criteria, seven are Critically Endangered and seven are Vulnerable.

Key Words

ArecaceaeDypsisMadagascarPalmaePalmsRavenea

Introduction

Undescribed palms continue to be discovered in Madagascar. Since the publication of The Palms of Madagascar by Dransfield & Beentje (1995), several species have been described either from the wild or from cultivation (Dransfield & Marcus 2002; Dransfield 2003; Hodel & Marcus 2004; Britt & Dransfield 2005; Rakotoarinivo et al.2007; Dransfield et al.2008; Rakotoarinivo 2008; Rakotoarinivo et al.2009). Beginning in 2006, we started an intensive study of the distributions of palms within Madagascar. As part of a palm diversity study that involved predictive modelling of species distributions in selected areas in Madagascar, several localities were visited for the first time and surveyed for palms. During this fieldwork new populations of rare species were recorded, as well as species new to science. For example, in Vondrozo in the southeast of Madagascar, the largest population of the highly endangered endemic Beccariophoenix madagascariensis on the island was discovered and Dypsis tanalensis was rediscovered, a species that had not been seen in the field since the type specimen was collected in the early 1900s. In addition, four undescribed species of palm were discovered.

Here we describe 12 new species of Dypsis and two of Ravenea, which were collected across the eastern part of Madagascar. With these novelties, Dypsis now includes 165 species and Ravenea 20, thus bringing the number of palm species currently known from Madagascar to 188 indigenous species (the presumed introductions Cocos nucifera L., Elaeis guineensis Jacq., Phoenix dactylifera L. and Raphia farinifera (Gaertn.) Hyl. are excluded from this total). Although the voucher specimens on which some new species are based is not complete, we argue that it is better at this stage to provide names as reference points for future studies. Cataloguing of the palms of Madagascar is still incomplete and as hitherto inaccessible areas are surveyed, yet more additions to this rich and fascinating flora will be made.

Although recorded from remote areas, difficult of access, all these new palm species are threatened. Less than 10% of the primary vegetation remains intact in Madagascar (Moat & Smith 2007) and it is estimated that a further 200,000 − 300,000 hectares of forest are lost annually (Hanski et al. 2007). Consequently, many species are on the verge of extinction or threatened by population fragmentation. For palms, the latest conservation analysis shows that among the 172 species known in 2007, only 18 are not threatened (Rakotoarinivo 2008). This same trend is revealed by the 14 species described as new here. In accordance with the IUCN Red List criteria (IUCN 2001) seven species are Critically Endangered whereas the remaining seven are Vulnerable.

The species accounts provide information about distribution, habitat type, notes on taxonomic affinity and conservation status. The new species of Dypsis appear in an order that corresponds with the informal infra-generic groups defined by Dransfield & Beentje (1995).

Dypsis

1. Dypsis sanctaRakotoarin. & J. Dransf., sp. nov.D. ovobontsirae Beentje versosimiliter affinis sed rachidi folii recurvata inflorescentia minore rachillis plurimis differt. Typus: Madagascar, Toamasina, Vavatenina, Vatovelona, A. Byg 1 (holotypus K!; isotypus AAU!).

http://www.ipni.org/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77105555-1

Slender solitary, erect palm. Stem to 10 m tall, 5 cm diam. Leaves 6 – 8 in the crown, strongly arching, pinnate; sheath 31 – 50 cm long, c. 2.5 cm wide, open to c. 10 cm in the distal part, pale green, covered with scattered blackish-red scales becoming more dense distally, auricles 6 – 7 × 0.4 – 0.5 cm, ragged at the margins; petiole 15 – 20 cm long, 3 – 5 cm wide, adaxially flattened to deeply channelled, densely covered with blackish deciduous scales; rachis 75 – 90 cm long, in mid-leaf 7 – 8 mm wide, strongly keeled, with scattered scales; leaflets regularly arranged, 25 – 30 on each side of the rachis, dark green, unequally attenuate, proximal leaflets 9 – 13.5 × 0.7 – 2 cm, median leaflets 23 – 30 × 3.4 – 4.5 cm, distal leaflets 9 – 15 × 1.2 – 2.3 cm, tip to 6 cm long, main veins 3 – 5, abaxial surface glabrous. Inflorescence interfoliar, branched to 3 orders, erect, 50 – 60 cm long, yellowish-green, with scattered orange scales on the peduncle and the proximal part of the rachis, prophyll and peduncular bract not seen, rachis c. 45 cm long, with 7 – 10 branched and 5 – 8 unbranched first order branches, the proximal first order branches with a rachis to 40 cm long, rounded, with up to 13 branched and 15 unbranched second order branches, covered with minute scattered scales; rachillae 7 – 9 cm long, spreading, densely puberulous, triads distant, in shallow pits. Flowers and fruits not seen. Fig. 1.
https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1007%2Fs12225-010-9210-7/MediaObjects/12225_2010_9210_Fig1_HTML.gif
Fig. 1

Dypsis sancta. A partial habit; B apical leaflets; C mid-leaflets; D inflorescence. All from A. Byg 1. Scale bar: A = 10 cm, B, C = 8 cm, D = 6 cm. drawn by lucy t. smith.

Distribution. Known only from Vatovelona forest, c. 10 km S of the village Manakambahiny 1, buffer zone for the Zahamena strict nature reserve.

Specimen Examined. Madagascar. Toamasina, Vavatenina, Vatovelona forest; 17°40′S, 49°00′E, 12 Oct. 1998, A. Byg 1 (holotype K!; isotype AAU!).

Habitat. Undergrowth in lowland humid forest, steep slope near river and small foot path; 580 m.

Conservation Status. Critically Endangered [CR, B1a + b(iii)]. Known only from a single site on the boundary of Zahamena Natural Reserve, in a piece of forest of 7 km2. The palm population is protected; however, its habitat is fragmented and local villagers are allowed with regulation to enter the forest and use its natural resources. This species and its habitat are thus threatened.

Notes. This species is similar to Dypsis ovobontsira, by having regularly arranged leaflets and in the leaf sheath indumentum. The leaves are, however, strongly curved and the inflorescence is smaller in size, and more highly branched. The specific epithet alludes to the locality — Vatovelona — which means a shrine in Malagasy.

2. Dypsis dracaenoidesRakotoarin. & J. Dransf.sp. nov.D. scottianae (Becc.) Beentje & J. Dransf. et D. macdonaldianae Beentje affinis sed foliis porrectis brevibus polymorphis, integris vel anguste dissectis differt. Typus: Madagascar, Fianarantsoa, Vondrozo, Madiorano, M. Rakotoarinivo et al. 312 (holotypus K!; isotypus TAN!).

http://www.ipni.org/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77105549-1

Clustering palm with 2 – 5 stems per clump, occasionally solitary, erect or sometimes leaning. Stems 2.5 – 4 m high, 0.8 – 1.5 cm diam.; internodes 0.8 – 4 cm long, covered with red scales in the distal part, proximal part with corky lenticels. Leaves 8 – 12 in the crown, forming a shuttlecock; sheath pale green, covered with red brown scales, 18.5 – 25 cm long, 1.5 – 2.2 cm wide, with auricles 5 – 6 × 0.6 – 1 cm; petiole absent or up to 4 cm long, occasionally densely scaly, adaxially flattened, abaxially rounded; rachis 16 – 38 cm long, tapering from c. 1 cm diam. at the base, adaxially flattened near the base, keeled towards the apex, abaxially angled, minutely scaly, blade coriaceous; lamina entire and deeply bifid or dissected; entire leaves 70 – 104 cm long, 10 – 16 cm wide, abaxially with scattered scales, ramenta very sparse, main veins 6 – 8 in each side of the rachis, apex dentate, lobe 55 – 80 cm, pinnate leaves with 8 – 9 very narrow leaflets on each side of the rachis, somewhat irregularly arranged, spaced at about 0.6 – 5.5 cm, proximal leaflets 41 – 60 × 0.5 – 0.7 cm, median leaflets 59 – 76 × 0.5 – 0.7 cm, distal multiple-fold leaflets 59 – 70 × 1.3 – 2 cm, main veins 2 – 3, apices dentate, abaxial surface of leaflets with scattered scales. Inflorescences interfoliar, pendulous to erect, branched to 2 orders; peduncle 50 – 68 cm long, 4 – 7 mm diam., brown puberulous; prophyll 18 – 20.5 cm long, 6.5 – 8 mm wide, inserted at 6 – 6.3 cm from the base of peduncle, 2-keeled, covered in scattered reddish-brown tomentum, open for 2 – 3.3 cm in the distal part; peduncular bract 31 – 56 cm long, 4 – 7 mm wide, inserted at 7 – 10 cm from the base of peduncle, sparsely scaly with reddish-brown tomentum, apical beak c. 3 mm, split to 3.3 – 6.5 cm in the distal part; rachis 20 – 40 cm long, 0.4 – 0.6 cm wide, yellowish, covered with scattered red scales, with 4 – 9 first branched rachillae and 8 – 11 unbranched rachillae, proximal rachillae to 6 cm long with up to 4 rachillae; rachilla 7 – 16 cm long, c. 1 mm diam., minutely puberulous, triads distant. Staminate flowers with sepals 0.8 – 1.3 × 1 – 1.3 mm, imbricate, minutely scaly, triangular, keeled, slightly asymmetric; petals 2 – 2.1 × 1.6 – 1.8 mm, elliptic, valvate, striate, coriaceous; stamens 6, equal, filaments 0.5 – 0.7 mm long, c. 0.1 mm wide, anthers versatile, medifixed, elongate, 1.2 – 1.4 × 0.4 – 0.5 mm; pistillode obovoid, c. 0.4 mm high. Pistillate flowers with sepals 1.2 – 1.4 × 1.1 – 1.3 mm, minutely scaly, triangular, asymmetric; petals 2.2 – 2.4 × 1.1 – 1.4 mm, elliptic, striate, imbricate, coriaceous; staminodes minute; gynoecium c. 1.7 × 1 mm. Fruit not seen. Fig. 2.
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Fig. 2

Dypsis dracaenoides. A habit with pinnate leaves; B habit with entire bifid leaves; C pinnate leaf; D leaf sheath of the entire bifid leaf; E entire bifid leaf; F inflorescence. A, C from M. Rakotoarinivo 316. B, D, E from M. Rakotoarinivo 312. Scale bar: A, B = 12 cm, CF, = 8 cm. drawn by lucy t. smith.

Distribution. Known only from Vondrozo forest, southeast of Madagascar.

Specimens Examined. Madagascar. Fianarantsoa, Vondrozo, Madiorano, 22°47′39″S, 47°11′18″E, 23 Oct. 2006, M. Rakotoarinivo et al. 312 (holotype K!; isotype TAN!); M. Rakotoarinivo et al. 316 (K!, TAN!).

Habitat. Lowland humid forest and rather dry montane forest in the western part of Vondrozo. Common palm in valleys and on lower slopes; 550 – 600 m.

Conservation Status. Vunerable [VU (D2)]. Known only from an area about 15 km2, in the west of Vondrozo. About 100 mature individuals have been observed and the forest where it occurs is managed by the local population. Illegal logging and mining activities continue and increase the threats to this species, in particular through habitat loss and degradation.

Vernacular Name. Tavosy.

Notes. The dissected-leaved form of this beautiful species bears an uncanny resemblance to Dracaena (Dracaenaceae), hence the specific epithet. This new species is related to group 4 of Dypsis (Dransfield & Beentje 1995), which includes six palms of the southern part of the rainforest in Madagascar. The group includes multi-stemmed undergrowth palms with six equal stamens. The new species is immediately distinguished by its striking leaf polymorphism and inflorescence structure.

3. Dypsis metallicaRakotoarin. & J. Dransf., sp. nov., D. luteae (Jum.) Beentje & J. Dransf. affinis sed folio metallico coriaceo linea centrali lutescenti differt. Typus: Madagascar, Antsiranana, Antalaha: Masoala Peninsula, Sahamalaza, Iketra, J. Dransfield et al. JD 7636 (holotypus K!; isotypus TAN!).

http://www.ipni.org/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77105553-1

Clustering palm. Stem to 5 m tall, 1 – 2 cm diam., dark green, internodes 2.5 – 3 cm long near the crown, with reddish indumentum. Leaves 6 – 10 in the crown; sheaths 12 – 20 cm long, 1.5 – 2 cm diam., closed, forming a well-developed crownshaft, abaxially covered with purplish indumentum mostly in the upper part, with triangular auricles, 1.2 – 2.5 × 0.2 – 0.5 cm; petiole 7 – 11 cm long, 2 – 4 mm wide, adaxially flat or slightly channelled, abaxially rounded, scaly; blade entire bifid, very coriaceous, metallic blue-green with a central pale yellowish line, the entire lamina 39 – 54 cm long, 9.5 – 27 cm wide, midrib 19 – 33 cm long, lobes 17 – 21 × 15 – 16 cm, apices narrowly dentate, adaxial surface of the leaf with minute punctiform scales, abaxially with scales on the midrib and minute punctiform scales along the veins. Inflorescence interfoliar, branching to 2 orders; peduncle 28 – 32 cm long, 3 – 5 mm diam., densely hairy in exposed parts; prophyll 14 – 17 × 0.8 – 1 cm, inserted at 6 – 7.5 cm from the base of peduncle, splitting distally for 1.5 – 2.5 cm, 2-keeled; peduncular bract deciduous; rachis 12.5 – 15 cm long, minutely to densely puberulous, with 6 – 9 branched and 7 – 9 unbranched first order branches; rachillae 5 – 8.5 cm long, 1 – 1.5 mm diam., glabrous, triads inserted at distances of 1.5 – 3 mm. Staminate flowers with sepals 0.8 – 1 × 0.8 – 1.1 mm; petals elliptic, 1.2 – 1.5 × 0.8 – 1 mm, striate; stamens 6, uniseriate, filaments c. 0.2 mm long, anthers 0.6 – 0.8 × 0.2 – 0.5 mm, elongate; pistillode minute, c. 0.2 mm high. Pistillate flowers with sepals 0.9 – 1.1 × 0.8 – 1 mm; petals 0.7 – 0.8 × 0.5 – 0.6 mm, striate, staminodes absent; gynoecium c. 0.6 × 0.4 mm. Fruits not seen. Fig. 3.
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Fig. 3

Dypsis metallica.A habit; B leaf and inflorescence; C detail of indumentum on the abaxial surface of the leaf blade. All from J. Dransfield JD 7636. Scale bar: A = 8 cm, B = 4 cm, C = 2 cm. drawn by lucy t. smith.

Distribution. Northeast of Madagascar, known only from Sahamalaza area, on the east side of Masoala Peninsula.

Specimen Examined. Madagascar. Antsiranana, Antalaha: Masoala Peninsula, Sahamalaza, Iketra, 15°44′S, 50°13″E, 16 Nov. 1996, J. Dransfield et al. JD 7636 (holotype K!; isotype TAN!).

Habitat. Heath forest developed on white sands associated with river terraces; 40 m.

Conservation Status. Vulnerable [VU (D2)], known only from Sahamalaza in the eastern part of the Masoala Peninsula. The population is estimated to occur in an area of 6 km2, within the Masoala National Park. Access is difficult and restricted.

Vernacular Name. Sinkiara.

Notes. This species belongs to the informal Group 5 (Dransfield & Beentje 1995) and keys to Dypsis lutea. It is distinguished by being altogether more robust and by its unusual metallic-hued coriaceous leaves. This species is of high ornamental value. The species epithet refers to the metallic blue green leaves.

4. Dypsis reflexaRakotoarin. & J. Dransf.sp. nov.D. caudatae Beentje affinis sed ramis inflorescentiae plurimis valde reflexis differt. Typus: Madagascar, Antsiranana, Antalaha, Sahamalaza, J. Dransfield et al. JD 7640 (holotypus K!; isotypus TAN!).

http://www.ipni.org/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77105554-1

Clustering palm with c. 8 stems. Stems to 3 m tall, c. 1 cm diam.; internodes 2.5 – 4 cm long, blackish, slightly scaly. Leaves 6 – 8 in the crown, pinnate; sheaths 9 – 10.5 cm long, 1.2 – 1.5 cm wide, forming a well-defined crownshaft, auricles c. 1 mm long, splitting for 4 – 4.5 cm distally, pale green with brown scales; petiole 8 – 9 cm long, 4 – 5 mm wide, densely covered with reddish scales, adaxially channelled; rachis 45 – 55 cm long, in mid-leaf 2 – 3 mm wide, densely scaly; leaflets c. 20 on each side of the rachis, arranged in groups of 2 – 4, at intervals of 2 – 3.5 cm, abaxial surface glabrous, apices 1.8 – 3.2 cm, proximal leaflets 6 – 6.5 × 0.8 – 1.2 cm, median leaflets 9 – 9.8 × 1.2 – 1.7 cm, distal leaflets 7.2 – 8 × 0.7 – 1.1 cm, with 2 – 5 main veins. Inflorescence interfoliar, branched to 2 orders, arching to pendulous; peduncle c. 28 cm long, c. 3 mm diam. distally, densely covered with rusty brown hairs; prophyll 23 cm long, c. 7 mm wide, dark brown, 2-keeled, with scattered scales on the adaxial surface, ± glabrous on the abaxial surface, splitting distally for 2.6 cm; peduncular bract deciduous, not seen; non-tubular peduncular bract occasionally present; rachis c. 34 cm long, 2 – 4 mm diam., with 7 branched and 17 unbranched first order branches, minutely puberulous; rachillae divaricate and reflexed, zigzag, orange, 2.6 – 4.2 cm long, 1 – 2 mm diam., minutely scaly at the base but soon glabrescent, triads inserted at distances of 1.4 – 2.2 mm. Staminate flowers with imbricate sepals 1.2 – 1.7 × 1.6 – 2.3 cm, minutely scaly; petals 2 – 2.2 × 1.6 – 1.7 cm, valvate, striate; stamens 6, equal, filaments 0.4 – 0.6 mm, anthers c. 1.1 mm long, elongate, basifixed; pistillode 1.2 mm high. Pistillate flowers not developed. Fig. 4.
https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1007%2Fs12225-010-9210-7/MediaObjects/12225_2010_9210_Fig4_HTML.gif
Fig. 4

Dypsis reflexa.A habit with leaf and inflorescence. From J. Dransfield JD 7640. Scale bar: A = 8 cm. drawn by lucy t. smith.

Distribution. Northeast of Madagascar, known only from Sahamalaza area, on the east side of Masoala Peninsula.

Specimen Examined. Madagascar. Antsiranana, Antalaha, Sahamalaza, Iketra, Tanany Rabepierre, 15°44′S, 50°13″E, 17 Nov. 1996, J. Dransfield et al. JD 7640 (holotype K!; isotype TAN!).

Habitat. Lowland forest, on gentle slopes; 40 m.

Conservation Status. Vulnerable [VU (D2)], restricted to Sahamalaza, in the eastern part of the Masoala Peninsula. The population of this species occurs in an area estimated to be 6 km2, within the boundary of Masoala National Park.

Notes. This species belongs to group 5 of Dypsis, as defined by Dransfield & Beentje (1995). It is similar to D. caudata but differs in the inflorescence being branched to two orders and in having a zigzag rachis. The species epithet refers to the reflexed inflorescence branches.

5. Dypsis gronophyllumRakotoarin. & J. Dransf.sp. nov. foliolis praemorsis D. trapezoideae J. Dransf. et D. thiryanae (Becc.) Beentje & J. Dransf. affinis sed habitu multo maiore, inflorescentia robustiori bene distincta. Typus: Madagascar, Fianarantsoa, Vondrozo: Madiorano, Anivontany, M. Rakotoarinivo et al. 350 (holotypus K; isotypus TAN).

http://www.ipni.org/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77105551-1

Clustering palm with 2 – 4 stems. Stems slender, to 4 m tall, 1 – 1.5 cm diam., erect, grey brown, internodes 1 – 4 cm long, covered with red scales below the crown, lenticels present in the lower part of the stems, nodal scars 1 – 2 mm wide. Leaves 7 – 12 in the crown, pinnate, porrect to spreading; sheaths 11 – 13.8 cm long, 1.4 – 2 cm diam., open for 2.2 – 7 cm in the upper part, forming a well defined crownshaft, sparsely to densely covered in red hairs on the abaxial surface, auricles 1.8 – 3.4 × 0.3 – 0.7 cm; petiole 1.7 – 5 cm long, c. 4 mm wide, adaxially flattened, abaxially rounded, scaly; leaf rachis 19.5 – 37 cm long, in mid-leaf 1 – 1.5 mm wide, triangular in cross section; leaflets irregularly arranged, 7 – 9 on each side of the rachis, at intervals of 1.4 – 8 cm, blade leathery, dark bluish green, proximal leaflets 9 – 18 × 0.8 – 1.4 cm, median leaflets 7 – 15 × 2.2 – 3 cm, distal leaflets 5 – 9 × 2.4 – 3.5 cm, irregularly praemorse, bands of scattered red scales along margins and occasionally on the major and minor veins. Inflorescence interfoliar, branching to 1 or 2 orders, peduncle 28 – 42 cm long, 4 – 5 mm diam., densely hairy in exposed parts; prophyll 9 – 13 × 0.8 – 1 cm, inserted at 2 – 5 cm from the base of the peduncle, distal part open for 2 – 3.5 cm, 2-keeled, sparsely to densely scaly; peduncular bract inserted at about 10 cm from the base of the peduncle, 24 – 27 cm long, c. 7 mm in the cross section, split to 3 – 5 cm, scaly, persistent; rachis 14 – 20 cm long, densely puberulous, with 4 – 6 branched and/or 7 – 11 unbranched first order branches; rachillae 3.6 – 8 cm long, 1 – 1.5 mm diam., glabrous, triads inserted at a distance of 1.5 – 3 mm, axis in first order branches up to 3 cm long. Staminate flowers with sepals c. 0.8 × 1 mm, imbricate, slightly waxy; petals 3, ellipsoid, valvate, striate, c. 1.5 × 1 mm; stamens 6, uniseriate, filaments c. 0.4 mm, anthers 0.8 – 1 × 0.2 – 0.5 mm, elongate, medifixed, versatile; pistillode minute, c. 0.8 mm. Pistillate flowers with sepals , c. 0.8 – 1 × 1 – 1.5 mm, imbricate, keeled, irregularly waxy, dentate at the margins; petals 3, c. 2 × 1 mm, ellipsoid, striate; gynoecium c. 1 mm high, staminodes 6, much smaller and encircling the gynoecium. Fruits not seen. Fig. 5.
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Fig. 5

Dypsis gronophyllum. A habit; B leaf; C crown with inflorescence; D detail of indument on leaf sheath. All from M. Rakotoarinivo 350. Scale bar: A = 15 cm, B, C = 6 cm, D = 1 cm. drawn by lucy t. smith.

Distribution. Southeast of Madagascar, known only from the forest of Vondrozo.

Specimen Examined. Madagascar. Fianarantsoa, Vondrozo: Madiorano, Anivontany, 3 Sept. 2007, M. Rakotoarinivo et al. 350 (holotype K!; isotype TAN!).

Habitat. Lowland humid evergreen forest on white sands, in valley bottoms in very humid forest; 590 m.

Conservation Status. Critically Endangered [CR(B2a + b(iii); D)]. Known only from Vondrozo where it is restricted to humid areas, all of these in an area less than 10 km2. About 40 mature individuals have been seen in the field while its habitat is subject to human exploitation for wood or for other natural resources.

Notes. Related to the species defined by Dransfield & Beentje (1995) in group 8 of Dypsis. This species differs from Dypsis thiryana and D. trapezoidea in its much larger habit, its much broader and thicker leaflets and much more robust inflorescences. It differs from D. schatzii Beentje by its larger size and the pinnate leaves with praemorse leaflets instead of possessing an entire bifid leaf. The species epithet is based on the Greek for eroded or grooved leaf, referring to the praemorse leaflet tips, but it also alludes to the striking resemblance in habit between this Dypsis and the completely unrelated Hydriastele pinangoides (Becc.) W. J. Baker & Loo from New Guinea, previously included in the now synonymised genus Gronophyllum.

6. Dypsis vonitrandamboRakotoarin. & J. Dransf., sp. nov., D. pusillae Beentje similis sed foliolis late lanceolatis vice linearibus et inflorescentia robustiore rachillis paucioribus differt. Typus: Madagascar, Antsiranana, Antalaha: Masoala Peninsula, Sahamalaza, Nov. 1996, J. Dransfield et al. JD 7631 (holotypus K!; isotypus TAN!).

http://www.ipni.org/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77105556-1

Solitary palm. Trunk to 1 m high, c. 5 cm diam., entirely covered by persistent fibres (piassava) about 5 cm, the fibres large, short, not pendulous; trunk supported by stilt roots to 50 cm above ground. Leaves 7 – 10 in the crown; sheaths up to 20 cm long with fibrous margins, not forming a crownshaft; petiole 60 – 100 cm long, densely rusty-scaly, adaxially channelled with sharp edges, abaxially ridged; rachis 70 – 90 cm long, in mid-leaf 5 – 7 × 4 mm diam., scaly, strongly keeled; emerging leaflets deep reddish brown, soon becoming green; leaflets regularly arranged, c. 9 on each side of the rachis, bright green, leaflets broad, lanceolate, the proximal 50 – 55 × 3 – 3.2 cm, the median 72 – 80 × 5.5 – 7 cm, the distal 12 – 27 × 1.5 – 7 cm, main veins 3 – 6, punctiform scales present on the margins and at the leaflet insertion, apices attenuate. Inflorescence interfoliar, erect, emerging from among the fibrous mass of piassava, branched to 1 order; peduncle 65 – 80 cm long, proximally 5 – 6 × 3 – 5 mm diam., distally 2 – 5 × 1.5 – 4 mm diam., green, with few scattered reddish scales distally; prophyll not seen; peduncular bract inserted at 25 – 40 cm from the base, 30 – 45 cm long, pale brown with many patches of dense reddish scales, persistent, with an apical beak 2 – 2.5 cm; rachis 5 – 8 cm long, scaly, with 13 – 18 branches; rachillae 11 – 22 cm long, 1 – 2 mm diam., densely scaly, triads distant. Staminate flowers with sepals 0.6 – 1 × 0.8 – 1.2 mm, asymmetrical; petals 1.4 – 1.8 × 0.6 – 0.8 mm; stamens 6, biseriate; 3 antesepalous sessile, 3 antepetalous with filaments 0.6 – 0.8 mm long; anthers c. 0.1 × 0.2 mm; pistillode 0.9 – 1 × 0.5 – 0.7 mm. Pistillate flowers with sepals 0.6 – 0.8 × 0.8 – 1 mm, asymmetrical; petals 1.2 – 1.4 × 1 – 1.2 mm; gynoecium c. 1.2 × 0.6 mm. Fruits young, black, obovoid, c. 6 × 5 mm. Fig. 6.
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Fig. 6

Dypsis vonitrandambo. A apical leaflets; B mid-leaf leaflets; C inflorescence; D peduncular bract; E upper part of the trunk with fibrous leaf sheath margins; F stilt roots. All from J. Dransfield JD 7631. Scale bar: AF = 6 cm. drawn by lucy t. smith.

Distribution. Northeast Madagascar, known only from Sahamalaza, on the eastern side of the Masoala Peninsula.

Specimen Examined. Madagascar. Antsiranana, Antalaha: Masoala Peninsula, Sahamalaza, Iketra, Tanany Rabepierre, 15°45′S, 50°12′E, 15 Nov. 1996, J. Dransfield et al. JD 7631 (holotype K!; isotype TAN!).

Habitat. Lowland forest on granite, valley bottom, streamside; 25 m.

Conservation Status. Vulnerable [VU (D2)], restricted to the eastern part of the Masoala Peninsula and known only from an area less than 10 km2, within the boundary of the National Park.

Vernacular Name. Vonitrandambo.

Notes. This species belongs to the “Vonitra” group (Group 16 of Dransfield & Beentje 1995) where the species tend to be very finely differentiated (see Dransfield & Beentje 1995). It is close to Dypsis pusilla but differs by having fewer but strikingly broader leaflets on the rachis, and much more robust inflorescences that bear fewer rachillae. D. pusilla is confined to lowland forest around the Bay of Antongil, from the west coast of the Masoala Peninsula to Antanambe, whereas D. vonitrandambo is restricted to the eastern side of the Masoala Peninsula. The species epithet is based on the vernacular name.

7. Dypsis culminisRakotoarin. & J. Dransf.sp. nov. inflorescentia et floribis staminatis D. procumbenti (Jum. & H. Perrier) J. Dransf., Beentje & Govaerts verosimiliter affinis sed foliis bifidis vice pinnatis differt. Typus: Madagascar, Fianarantsoa, Vondrozo, Madiorano, M. Rakotoarinivo 335 (holotypus K!; isotypus TAN!).

http://www.ipni.org/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77105548-1

Clustering undergrowth palm with 4 – 8 stems. Stems to 3 m tall, 1.4 – 2 cm diam., internodes 12 – 30 mm, brown, covered in scattered reddish-brown pubescence in the distal part. Leaves 9 – 12 in the crown; sheaths 11 – 13 × 1.3 – 1.5 cm, longitudinally striate, covered in sparse to dense red-brown scales, crownshaft well defined, leaf sheath split to 4 – 6 cm distally, auricles triangular, 2.6 – 3.3 × 0.2 – 0.6 cm; petiole 3.2 – 10 cm long, sparsely scaly, deeply channelled on the adaxial surface; rachis 49 – 54 cm long, brown to pale yellow, minutely scaly; leaf blade entire bifid, 59 – 64 × 8.8 – 9.5 cm with an apical notch 7 – 9.5 cm, apex toothed, lamina leathery, abaxially covered in thin grey scales and very few small ramenta, main veins numerous. Inflorescence interfoliar, erect, branched to 1 order; peduncle 28 – 33 cm long, 3 – 5 mm wide, glabrous; prophyll c. 10 × 0.7 cm, brown, sparsely scaly, keeled, inserted at c. 2 cm from the base of the peduncle, open at 1.7 – 3 cm distally; peduncular bract persistent, c. 24 × 0.6 cm, minutely to densely scaly in the proximal part, inserted at c. 6 cm from the base of the peduncle, split to 3 – 4 cm in the distal part; rachis 7 – 16 cm long, pale green to yellowish, minutely puberulous; rachillae 6 – 9, yellowish, 7 – 13 cm long, c. 1 mm wide, with rather distant triads. Staminate flowers with imbricate sepals, 1 – 1.1 × 0.8 – 1.1 mm, keeled, margins erose; petals 1 – 1.2 × 0.7 – 0.8 mm, valvate, elliptic, striate; stamens 6, equal, filaments c. 0.2 mm, anthers medifixed, not versatile, c. 0.4 mm long, pistillode trilobed, c. 0.5 mm high. Pistillate flowers with imbricate sepals, 0.8 – 1.2 × 0.8 – 1.2 mm, slightly asymmetrical, keeled, margins minutely erose; petals 1 – 1.1 × 0.7 – 0.8 mm, valvate, striate, elliptic; gynoecium c. 0.5 × 0.4 mm, hexagonal. Fruits not seen. Fig. 7.
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Fig. 7

Dypsis culminis. A general habit; B crown with inflorescence. All from M. Rakotoarinivo 335. Scale bar: A = 30 cm, B = 6 cm. drawn by lucy t. smith.

Distribution. Known only from Vondrozo forest, southeast Madagascar.

Specimen Examined. Madagascar. Fianarantsoa, Vondrozo, Madiorano, 22°48′15″S, 47°16′29″E, 28 Oct. 2006, M. Rakotoarinivo 335 (holotype K!; isotype TAN!).

Habitat. Lowland humid forest, only on higher slopes and ridge crests; 600 m.

Conservation Status. Critically Endangered [CR (B2a + b(ii,iii); D)]. Rare species, only two mature individuals have been seen on a single mountain ridge where the forest on the lower slopes is being cleared.

Notes. This new species has an inflorescence and staminate flowers comparable with those of Dypsis procumbens but it differs from this latter in its entire bifid leaves.

8. Dypsis anjaeRakotoarin. & J. Dransf.sp. nov.Dypsis delicatulae Britt & J. Dransf. et D. pulchellae J. Dransf. verosimiliter affinis; a D. delicatula inflorescentia rachillis paucioribus robustioribus et a D. pulchella folio minus profunde fissa et rachillis pauciorbus et robustioribus differt. Typus: Madagascar, Toamasina, Vavatenina, RNI Zahamena, L. J. Razafitsalama et al. 146 (fr.) (holotypus K!; isotypi CNARP!, MO!, P!, TEF!).

http://www.ipni.org/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77105546-1

Slender clustering or occasionally solitary palm. Stems to 3 m high, c. 5 – 10 mm diam., internodes 0.8 – 4 cm long, dark green with caducous black scales. Leaves entire bifid, 6 – 15 in the crown, spreading; sheaths 6 – 7 cm long, open for 1 – 1.6 cm in the distal part, forming a short crownshaft, pale green, with reddish scattered scales, auricles narrow, c. 0.8 × 0.6 mm; petiole 0.9 – 4.5 cm long, c. 2 mm diam., sparsely to densely scaly; blade leathery, obtriangular, 15 – 27 cm long, 3 – 4.8 cm wide, dark green; midrib 11 – 21 cm long, lobes 4.2 – 10 × 2 – 2.8 cm, main veins 5 – 10, apices minutely dentate. Inflorescence interfoliar, branched to 1 order; peduncle c. 9.5 cm long, c. 2 mm diam., glabrescent; prophyll 6.5 cm long, 0.6 cm wide, split in the distal 2 cm, glabrescent; peduncular bract persistent, 9.4 cm long, glabrous, purplish to brown, inserted at 4.3 cm from the base of peduncle, split for 3.6 cm in the distal part; rachis 2.4 cm, puberulous at anthesis but glabrous in fruit; rachillae c. 5 2.5 – 4 cm long, 0.8 – 1.2 mm thick, triads distant, flowers yellow. Staminate flowers with sepals 1.5 – 1.9 × 2 – 3 mm, imbricate, keeled, asymmetric; petals 4.5 – 7.2 × 2.3 – 3.8 mm, elliptic, imbricate; stamens 6, uniseriate, filaments c. 0.3 mm; anthers medifixed, versatile, elongate, 2.4 – 2.8 × 0.7 – 1 mm; pistillode c. 1.1 × 0.7 mm. Pistillate flowers with sepals imbricate, 2.1 – 2.7 × 3 – 3.2 mm; petals elliptic, beaked, imbricate, minutely puberulous, 4.2 – 4.8 × 2.7 – 3 mm; gynoecium 4.2 – 4.8 × 2.7 – 3 mm. Fruits reddish, ellipsoid, curved at the apex, 5.2 – 5.5 × 2.1 – 2.2 mm, mesocarp fibrous, stigmatic remains sub-basal. Seeds ellipsoid, curved, c. 4.3 × 1.7 mm, embryo lateral, endosperm homogenous. Fig. 8.
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Fig. 8

Dypsis anjae. A crown with inflorescence; B fruit; C seed, T.S. All from J. L Razafitsalama et al. 146. Scale bar: A = 3 cm, B, C = 2.5 mm. drawn by lucy t. smith.

Distribution. East of Madagascar, known only from buffer zone of Zahamena Natural Reserve in the area of Vavatenina.

Specimens Examined. Madagascar. Toamasina, Vavatenina, RNI Zahamena, 17°40′S, 49°00′E, 16 Oct. 1998, A. Byg 16 (fl.) (AAU, K); idem 17°39′10″S, 48°58′07″E, 24 Oct. 2002, L. J. Razafitsalama et al. 146 (fr.) (holotype K!; isotypes CNARP!, MO!, P!, TEF!).

Habitat. Humid lowland forest with closed canopy, on gentle slopes; 580 – 600 m.

Conservation Status. Critically Endangered [CR, B1a + b(iii)]. Known only from the buffer zone of Zahamena Natural Reserve, in an area calculated as 17.8 km2. Although this species occurs in a protected area, its habitat may be disturbed sporadically by the incursion of local villagers looking for wood and other forest products.

Vernacular Name. Sinkaramboalavo (Betsimisaraka).

Notes. Belonging to informal Group 8, superficially Dypsis anjae seems similar to D. delicatula and D. pulchella; the former has extremely slender short and numerous rachillae, very different from the rather far fewer and more robust rachillae of D. anjae while D. pulchella has a more deeply cleft leaf and more numerous, more robust and longer rachillae. It is one of the smallest palms in Madagascar. The species is named for the first collector of this palm, Anja Byg.

9. Dypsis jeremieiRakotoarin. & J. Dransf.sp. nov. Inflorescentia foliis D. procumbenti similis sed endospermio ruminato bene distincta; a D. nodifera Mart. habitu caespitoso foliolis anguste linearibus differt inflorescenti in 1 (2) ordines ramificanti. Typus: Madagascar, Toamasina, Soanierana Ivongo, Ambatovaky Reserve: Iampirano, Dec. 2003, J. L. Razafitsalama et al. 558 (holotypus K!; isotypi MO, TAN!).

http://www.ipni.org/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77105552-1

Clustering palm. Stems up to 2 m high, to 2 cm diam., internodes 3 – 6 cm long. Leaves 8 – 10 in the crown; sheath 25 – 28 cm long, 1 – 1.6 cm diam., pale green, forming a well defined crownshaft, glabrous, auricles absent; petiole 16 – 27 cm long, c. 4 mm diam., with scattered grey scales, adaxially slightly channelled; rachis 46 – 67 cm long, in mid-leaf c. 4 mm wide, pubescent on adaxial surface and with scattered scales abaxially; leaflets 10 – 14 on each side of the rachis, irregularly arranged in scattered groups, proximal leaflets 16.5 – 24 × 1.2 – 2.7 cm, median leaflets 18 – 27 × 1.7 – 2.6 cm, distal leaflets often multifold, 11.2 – 12.5 × 1.4 – 4.6 cm, main veins 1 – 3, apices 4 – 6.5 cm wide, lamina surfaces minutely scaly. Inflorescence interfoliar, branched to 1 (– 2) order(s), erect; peduncle 15 – 32.5 cm long, 3 – 5 mm wide, glabrous to slightly scaly; prophyll 7.8 – 14 cm long, c. 8 mm wide, borne at the base of the peduncle, split in the distal 6 – 8 mm, glabrous; peduncular bract marcescent, inserted at 5.3 – 7.6 cm from the base of the peduncle, 13.2 – 26 cm long, glabrous, split to about 4 – 5.5 cm along its length in the distal part, with a beak c. 2 mm long; rachis 11 – 16.5 cm long, densely pubescent, with 0 (1) branched and 6 – 12 unbranched first order branches; rachillae 7.5 – 18 cm long, 1.5 – 2 mm diam., scaly, triads distant. Staminate flowers with sepals 1.5 – 2 × 0.8 – 1 mm, asymmetrical; petals 2 – 2.3 × 1 – 1.2 mm; stamens 6, biseriate, filaments 0.3 – 0.5 mm, anthers 1 – 1.2 × 0.4 mm, elongate, dorsifixed; pistillode 0.4 – 0.7 mm high, c. 0.2 mm diam. Pistillate flowers with sepals 1 – 1.8 × 0.8 – 1.2 mm; petals 0.8 – 1.1 × 0.6 – 0.8 mm; gynoecium c. 0.6 × 0.4 mm. Fruits ellipsoid, 9 – 12 × 4 – 5 mm, red; endocarp fibrous. Seed 9 – 10 × 2.5 – 3 mm, endosperm deeply ruminate. Fig. 9.
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Fig. 9

Dypsis jeremiei. A whole leaf; B portion of leaf; C inflorescence; D fruit; E fruit in T.S. All from J. L Razafitsalama et al. 558. Scale bar: A = 24 cm, B = 6 cm, C = 4 cm, D = 4 mm, E = 3.3 mm. drawn by lucy t. smith.

Distribution. Northeast Madagascar, known only from Iampirano area, in Ambatovaky Reserve.

Specimen Examined. Madagascar. Toamasina: Soanierana Ivongo, Ambatovaky Reserve: 2 km NW of Iampirano, 16°48′28″S 49°10′12″E, 13 Dec. 2003, J. L. Razafitsalama et al. 558 (holotype K!; isotypes MO, TAN!).

Habitat. Middle altitude forest, on rocky substratum; 946 m.

Conservation Status. Vulnerable [VU (D2)], restricted to Ambatovaky Reserve where the species has been recorded from a patch of forest less than 5 km2.

Notes. In inflorescence structure and vegetative habit this species resembles Dypsis procumbens but it is immediately distinguishable by its deeply ruminate endosperm. It appears to belong to the informal Group 17 (D. nodifera) by virtue of the ruminate endosperm, but it can immediately be distinguished from D. nodifera by the very different leaflet arrangement and form, the absence of swellings at the bases of the leaflets and the inflorescence branched to 1 (rarely 2) order. The species is named for the collector, Jeremie (Jimmy) Razafitsalama.

10. Dypsis betsimisarakaeRakotoarin. & J. Dransf.sp. nov. endospermio ruminato D. nodiferae affinis sed habitu caespitoso foliolis linearibus basin vix nodosis differt. Typus: Madagaascar, Soanierana Ivongo, Ambatovaky Reserve, Britt et al. AB53 (holotypus K!; isotypus TAN!).

http://www.ipni.org/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77105547-1

Clustering palm with 2 – 5 stems or rarely solitary. Stems 2 – 6 m tall, 1.5 – 3 cm diam., leaning, internodes 1.6 – 7 cm long, pale green to grey. Leaves 6 – 9 in the crown, porrect; sheath 19 – 30 cm long, 1.8 – 3.2 cm wide, closed, forming a well defined, often bulbous crownshaft, pale green or grey, covered with red scales, auricles triangular 2.6 – 5.5 × 0.3 – 1.2 cm; petiole absent or up to 21 (47) cm long, proximally 4 – 7 × 3 – 5 mm across, distally 5 – 7 × 2.3 – 3 mm across, densely scaly, adaxially flat or shallowly channelled; rachis 50 – 107 cm long, in mid-leaf 2 – 4 mm wide, abaxially with scattered scales, adaxially keeled; leaflets 16 – 26 on each side of the rachis, grouped or irregular, linear, mostly arranged in the same plane, in groups of 3 – 6, groups at intervals of 6 – 13 cm, leaflets within the group at intervals of 0.4 – 1.5 cm, rarely swollen at the base, proximal leaflets 12 – 24 × 0.2 – 0.6 cm, median leaflets 21 – 30 × 1.7 – 2.8 cm, distal leaflets 10.5 – 12.5 × 1.2 – 2 cm, glabrous, apices to 12 cm long, main veins 1 – 5. Inflorescence infrafoliar, branched to 2 (– 3) orders; peduncle 10 – 18 cm long, 0.4 – 1 cm wide, scaly; prophyll 6.5 – 16 cm long, 1.3 – 1.8 cm wide, keeled, borne at 1.2 – 4 cm above the base of peduncle, split in the distal 2.6 – 5 cm, scaly; peduncular bract inserted at 4 – 10.5 cm from the base of peduncle, 21 – 32 cm long, split in the distal 14 – 25 cm, minutely scaly, beak 1 – 1.5 cm long; rachis 15 – 20 cm long, scaly or rarely glabrous, with 6 – 8 branched and 7 – 9 unbranched first order branches; rachillae 11 – 29 cm long, c. 1.5 mm diam., glabrous, pendulous, triads distant. Staminate flowers with imbricate sepals, 1.8 – 2.2 × 1.8 – 2.5 mm, irregular clefts in the margins; petals obovate, valvate, not striate, fleshy, 1.6 – 1.9 × 1.4 – 1.6 mm; stamens 6, biseriate, antesepalous lower than antepetalous, filaments 0.4 – 0.7 × 0.2 – 0.3 mm, anthers 0.5 – 0.7 mm long, dorsifixed, locules divergent, versatile; pistillode minute, c. 1.5 mm high. Pistillate flowers with sepals 1.3 – 1.5 × 1.8 – 2 mm, keeled, ± irregular, petals 2.2 – 2.4 × 1.7 – 1.8 mm, obovate, fleshy; gynoecium c. 2.2 × 1.6 mm. Fruits ellipsoid, red, 0.7 – 1.1 × 0.4 – 0.5 cm, mesocarp fibrous. Seed ellipsoid, 7 – 8 × 3 – 4 mm, endosperm deeply ruminate. Fig. 10.
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Fig. 10

Dypsis betsimisarakae. A leaf; B inflorescence; C fruit; D fruit in L.S.; E fruit in C.S. All from A. Britt et al. 53. Scale bar: A = 8 cm, B = 6 cm, C, D, E = 3.3 mm. drawn by lucy t. smith.

Distribution. East of Madagascar, between Soanierana Ivongo and Anosibe an’Ala.

Specimens Examined. Madagascar. Toamasina: Soanierana Ivongo, Ambatovaky reserve, 16°48′04″S, 49°10′21″E, 11 Dec. 2003, A. Britt et al. AB45 (K!, TAN!); idem 16°49′06″S, 49°11′12″E, 15 Dec. 2003, A. Britt et al. AB53 (holotype K!; isotype TAN!); idem 16°48′23″S, 49°10′33″E, 10 Dec. 2003, H. Beentje 4913 (K!, TAN!), idem 16°50′43″S, 49°10′54″E, 14 Dec. 2003, H. Beentje 4940 (K!, TAN!), idem 16°47′06″S, 49°10′48″E, 15 Dec. 2003, J. L. Razafitsalama 561 (K!, TAN!). Soanierana Ivongo, Befanjana, 16°40′11″S, 49°36′12″E, 14 Sept. 2006, M. Rakotoarinivo et al. 243 (K!, P!, TAN!) & M. Rakotoarinivo et al. 245 (K!, TAN!). Brickaville, Reserve speciale Mangerivola, Andramangarana, 18°12′22″S, 48°55′29″E, 21 July 2006, M. Rakotoarinivo et al. 223 (K!, P!, TAN!). Anosibe an’ala, Andonabe, 19°19′39″S, 48°06′30″E, 16 June 2006, M. Rakotoarinivo et al. 199 (K!, P!, TAN!).

Habitat. Lowland and middle altitude forest, steep slopes under more or less open canopy; 300 – 750 m.

Conservation Status. Vulnerable [VU (B1a + b(i,ii, iii, v); C2a)]. Large distribution range (EOO: 9880 km2) but known only from five locations where almost all of the habitat is subject to human pressure. The species is losing its habitat.

Notes. This species would key to Dypsis nodifera, because of its size, the ruminate endosperm and irregularly arranged leaflets. However, the habit is almost always clustering rather than solitary and the leaflets are linear rather than usually lanceolate, and usually lack the strong swelling at the leaflet bases. Furthermore, the leaflets are not twisted at their bases to be displayed in several planes, and the palm thus has an altogether different appearance. The species epithet is based on the name of the ethnic group of people who live in the general area of the palm’s distribution.

11. Dypsis andilamenensisRakotoarin. & J. Dransf.sp. nov. habitu scandenti D. scandenti J. Dransf. similis sed inflorescentia robustiore rachillis plurimis et endospermio ruminato bene distincta. Typus: Madagascar, Toamasina, Andilamena, Behorefo, M. Rakotoarinivo et al. 183 (holotypus K; isotypi P!, TAN!).

http://www.ipni.org/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77105545-1

Clustering, climbing palm. Stems to 15 – 20 m long, 1.2 – 1.5 cm diam., flexible, proximally ridged and cracked vertically with lenticels, internodes 20 – 25 cm long, bright green near the crown. Leaves 6 – 8 in the crown, marcescent; sheath 25 – 36 cm long, not forming a crownshaft, pale green, densely covered with white wax, scales scattered in the distal part, auricles to c. 3 mm high; petiole absent; rachis 1.2 – 1.4 m long, 4 – 6 mm wide at the base, tapering to 1 mm distally, triangular but slightly concave on the adaxial face of the proximal part, minutely scaly; leaflets 18 – 22 on each side of the rachis, irregularly arranged, dark green to yellowish, coriaceous, lanceolate, pendulous, twisted at the base, inserted at the rachis with a woody pulvinus, basal leaflets grouped in 2s, median arranged singly but irregularly and the distal ones in pairs, proximal leaflets 9 – 14 × 1.1 – 2.4 cm, median leaflets 17 – 21 × 2.8 – 3 cm, distal leaflets 6 – 9 × 1.4 – 1.8 cm, leaflet tip 3 – 10 cm long, leaflet surface glabrous. Inflorescences interfoliar, pendulous, branched to 1 or 2 orders; peduncle 43 – 82 cm long, 0.3 – 1 cm wide at the base, densely covered in red brown tomentum; prophyll inserted 12 – 16 cm above the base of peduncle, 19 – 28 × 0.7 – 1.2 cm, glabrous or minutely scaly, 2-keeled, split to 1 – 2.6 cm in the distal part; peduncular bract deciduous, inserted at 25 – 31 cm from the peduncle base, 24.5 – 44 × 2.6 – 3.8 cm, with few scattered scales, with a beak c. 0.5 cm long; rachis 18 – 42 cm, densely covered in red brown indumentum, up to 5 first order branches branched and 10 – 12 unbranched; rachillae spreading and pendulous, 10 – 26 cm long, c. 1.5 mm diam., glabrous to densely scaly. Staminate flowers sepals 0.8 – 1.5 × 1.1 – 1.6 mm, imbricate, unequal, disintegrating at the margins, ciliolate; petals 2.1 – 2.2 × 1.5 – 1.6 mm, valvate, striate; stamens 6, biseriate but differing less than 0.2 mm in height, filaments 0.8 – 1 mm, anthers c. 1.1 – 1.4 mm, medifixed, pistillode minute, 0.6 mm. Pistillate flowers with sepals 1.4 – 1.5 × 1.2 – 1.5 mm, imbricate, ciliolate; petals 1.8 – 2 × 0.9 – 1.3 mm, valvate, striate; gynoecium c. 1.1 × 0.7 mm, ovoid. Fruit ellipsoid, 7.2 – 8.8 × 3.8 – 5.1 mm, yellowish, mesocarp fleshy, endocarp fibrous. Seed ellipsoid, acute at the apex, 7.5 – 8.4 × 3.6 – 4.2 mm, endosperm deeply ruminate. Fig. 11.
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Fig. 11

Dypsis andilamenensis. A habit; B leaf; C inflorescence; D portion of rachilla; E male flower; F male flower, L.S.; G fruit; H seed, L.S.; J seed, T.S. All from M. Rakotoarinivo et al. 183. Scale bar: A = 25 cm, B, C = 8 cm, D = 4 mm, E, F = 1.3 mm, G, H, J = 3.3 mm. drawn by lucy t. smith.

Distribution. Known from a single site in the centre of Madagascar, Andilamena area.

Specimen Examined. Madagascar, Toamasina, Andilamena, Behorefo. 16°59′30″S, 48°50′38″E, 6 April 2006, M. Rakotoarinivo et al. 183 (holotype K!; isotypes P!, TAN!).

Habitat. Montane forest, with rather open canopy; 750 − 800 m.

Conservation Status. Critically Endangered [CR (B2a + b (iii)]. Known only from a single location where the Extent of Occurrence is estimated to be 4.3 km2. This species is quite abundant in the field but its habitat is not protected and is being cleared. Deforestation and illegal mining for rubies are the threats to Dypsis andilamenensis.

Notes. In the field this species was mistaken for Dypsis scandens, the only other climbing palm known from Madagascar, but in the herbarium differences soon became obvious. The ruminate endosperm (homogeneous in D. scandens) immediately recalled D. nodifera, at the time the only other non-arborescent species in the genus with ruminate endosperm. Furthermore, the inflorescences of D. andilamenensis are much more robust and the whole plant dries deep brown rather than paler greenish brown. The species epithet is based on the locality.

12. Dypsis gautieriRakotoarin. & J. Dransf.sp. nov.D. pinnatifrondi Mart. superficialiter similis sed staminibus 3 antepetalis vice antesepalis et floribus rotundatis instanter distinguibilis. Typus: Madagascar, Antsiranana, Vohemar, Daraina, Nov. 2004, L. Gautier, P. Ranirison & L. Nusbaumer LG 4703 (holotypus K!; isotypus G!).

http://www.ipni.org/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77105550-1

Solitary palm. Stems erect, 2 – 5 m high, 1.8 – 3.5 cm diam., internodes 2.1 – 3 cm, green to grey brown, minutely scaly near the crown. Leaves c. 9 in the crown, pinnate; sheaths 17 – 18.5 cm long, 2.8 – 3.5 cm wide, closed, forming a well defined crownshaft, minutely scaly in all parts and covered with tomentum in the upper part, auricles irregularly triangular, to c. 3 – 4 × 0.4 – 0.6 cm, tattering; petiole absent or up to 2 cm long; rachis 45 – 55 cm long, c. 0.5 cm diam., densely covered with scales, adaxially channelled at the base then triangular in the median and distal parts; leaflets 18 – 22 on each side of the rachis, in groups of 2 – 5, at intervals of 4 – 9 cm, the leaflets within the group 0.5 – 1 cm apart; proximal leaflets 11 – 12.3 × 0.4 – 0.6 cm, median 18 – 21 × 1.7 – 2.2 cm, distal 12 – 14 × 2 – 2.5 cm, lamina covered in scattered brown scales, main veins 3, apices 1.4 – 2 cm long. Inflorescence interfoliar, branched to 3 – 4 orders, arching; peduncle c. 40 cm long, 0.8 cm wide, densely covered in brown scales; prophyll inserted c. 1 cm above the base of peduncle, c. 15 × 1.5 cm, split to 2.4 cm in the distal part, scaly, keeled; peduncular bract persistent, inserted c. 15 cm above the base of peduncle, c. 19 × 1.2 cm, beaked for c. 6 mm, split to 4 cm distally, with scattered scales; rachis c. 45 cm long, 2 – 8 mm diam., densely scaly, with 24 branched and 7 unbranched first order branches, proximal first order branches to 13 cm long, with 6 branched and 10 unbranched second order branches, proximally to 2 – 4 × 0.1 – 0.2 cm; rachillae 3 – 5 cm long, c. 0.5 mm diam., densely puberulous; triads inserted at intervals of 1.2 – 3.8 mm. Staminate flowers with sepals imbricate, unequal, 2.2 – 2.6 × 2.6 – 2.8 mm, densely scaly, keeled, ± asymmetrical; petals imbricate but valvate at the tip, 3.2 – 3.8 × 2.2 – 2.8 cm, striate, minutely puberulous; stamens 3, antepetalous, filaments short c. 1 mm long, erect, anthers broad, sagittate, with 2 locules neatly differentiated, 10 – 12 × 5 – 8 mm; staminodes 3, minute c. 0.4 mm high; pistillode hexagonal, c. 0.6 mm high. Pistillate flowers with sepals imbricate, unequal, 2.4 – 2.9 × 2.6 – 2.8 mm, scaly, asymmetrical, keeled; petals imbricate, 2.8 – 3.4 × 1.8 – 2.4 mm, striate, elliptic; gynoecium obovoid, 1.4 – 2 × 1.5 – 1.6 mm. Fruits unknown. Fig. 12.
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Fig. 12

Dypsis gautieri. A crown with inflorescence; B male flower in bud; C male flower, L.S.; D stamen. All from L. Gautier et al. LG 4703. Scale bar: A = 8 cm, B, C = 0.85 mm, D = 0.4 mm. drawn by lucy t. smith.

Distribution. Known only from Daraina, in the north of Madagascar.

Specimen Examined. Madagascar. Antsiranana, Vohemar, Daraina, 13°13′39″S, 49°32′08″E, 11 Nov. 2004, L. Gautier et al. LG 4703 (holotype K!; isotype G!).

Habitat. Montane forest, crest of ridge; 1040 m.

Conservation Status. Vulnerable [VU D2]. Rare species, less than 20 mature individuals have been seen but the species is located on the summit of mountains where access is difficult and the whole area is protected and managed by Fanamby NGO.

Notes. Because of the form of the leaves, this species is superficially like Dypsis pinnatifrons, although substantially smaller. However, the staminate flowers have three antepetalous stamens with broad sagittate anthers rather than three antesepalous stamens with narrow sagittate anthers. It thus belongs to group 18 of Dransfield & Beentje (1995), some species of which were originally described in a separate genus, Trichodypsis. It is the only member of the group to have rather broad lanceolate single-fold leaflets grouped in tight clusters. The species is named for the collector, Laurent Gautier who has done much to catalogue the plant diversity of Daraina, a northern outlier of rain forest in Madagascar.

Ravenea

1. Ravenea beentjeiRakotoarin. & J. Dransf.sp. nov. inflorescentiis staminatis et pistillatis solitariis R. robustiori Jum. & H. Perrier et R. krocianae Beentje similis, sed trunco non ventricoso, inflorescentiae rachillis pendulis, floribus staminatis plerumque staminibus 12 vice 6 differt. Typus: Madagascar, Fianarantsoa, Vondrozo, Madiorano, Oct. 2006, M. Rakotoarinivo 317 (holotypus K!; isotypus TAN!).

http://www.ipni.org/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77105557-1

Medium-sized, solitary, dioecious palm. Trunk 3.5 – 10 m tall, 8 – 15 cm diam., internodes 4 – 11 cm, bark brown, wood soft, base of the crown bulbous, c. 11 cm across. Leaves 8 – 15 in the crown, porrect to pendulous, arching, marcescent, occasionally trapping litter; sheath 50 – 90 × 10 – 15 cm, yellowish but covered with brown blackish indumentum, margins disintegrating and fibrous; petiole 30 – 150 cm long, 3.5 – 3.8 × 1.5 – 2 cm in cross section, slightly channelled, margins sharp, abaxial surface covered in caducous white to greyish tomentum; rachis 2 – 3.50 m long, 1.2 – 2 × 2.2 – 2.6 cm in cross section in mid-leaf, keeled, pale green, with irregular grey to brown tomentum, becoming glabrescent; leaflets stiff, regularly arranged, arranged in one plane, dark green, 46 – 55 on each side of the rachis, the proximal leaflets 52 – 123 × 0.8 – 2 cm, the median leaflets 116 – 124 × 4.8 – 6 cm, the distal leaflets 21 – 42 × 0.8 – 2.9 cm, leaflets spaced 4 – 6 cm apart, abaxial surface with scattered brown scales and ramenta. Inflorescences interfoliar, solitary. Staminate inflorescence pendulous, branched to 2 orders, peduncle 24 – 38 cm long, 0.8 – 1 cm wide, prophyll not seen, peduncular bracts several but only 2 preserved, c. 77 and 82 cm long, c. 9 cm wide, purplish, covered in red brown tomentum, rachis c. 48 cm long; rachillae 9 – 15 cm long, c. 0.5 mm wide; pedicel 0.6 – 1.2 mm. Staminate flowers yellow, calyx connate for c. 0.4 mm, lobes 1.6 – 2 × 0.8 – 1 mm; petals free, 6.2 – 6.5 × 4.5 – 4.7 mm, with scattered minute red dots near the apex; stamens (6) 12, 2 opposite each petal, and 2 opposite each sepal, filaments 0.4 – 0.8 mm, anthers c. 3.5 × 1.4 mm., pistillode minute. Pistillate inflorescence erect, branched to 1 order, peduncle 19 – 25 cm long, c. 1.6 cm across, yellowish, covered with red brown tomentum; prophyll c. 30 × 8 cm, pinkish, covered with red brown tomentum; peduncular bracts c. 85 × 6 cm, ± equal in size, purplish-pink, abaxial surface densely covered in red brown tomentum in the upper part; rachis 30 – 35 × 1.5 – 1.7 cm, yellow but sparsely to densely covered with red brown tomentum, with 6 – 18 rachillae; rachillae 35 – 48 cm long, glabrescent, sinuous, pedicels 3.7 – 5.2 mm long. Pistillate flowers yellow, sepals connate for c. 1.6 mm, lobes c. 0.8 × 0.7 mm; petals unequal, spathulate, coriaceous, 1.3 – 6.5 × 4.5 – 5.4 mm; staminodes 12, minute; gynoecium c. 7.4 × 8 mm, gibbous, triloculate, stigmas recurved. Fruits blackish, subglobose, perianth persistent, stigmatic remains apical, 1.4 – 1.6 × 1.5 – 1.6 cm, epicarp c. 0.8 mm thick, mesocarp 1.8 mm thick, spongy, endocarp spongy. Seeds 3; 1.3 – 1.4 × 0.7 – 0.8 mm, seedcoat black, 0.1 mm thick; endosperm homogeneous. Fig. 13.
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Fig. 13

Ravenea beentjeiA mid-leaflets; B leaf sheath; C female inflorescence with peduncular bract; D female flowers, on rachilla; E female flower; F male flower; G fruit. AE and G from M. Rakotoarinivo 321, F from M. Rakotoarinivo 317. Scale bar: A, C = 8 cm, B = 4 cm, D, G = 1 cm, E = 7 mm, F = 5 mm. drawn by lucy t. smith.

Distribution. Known only from Vondrozo forest, in southeast Madagascar.

Specimens Examined. Madagascar. Fianarantsoa, Vondrozo, Madiorano, 22°47′39″S, 47°11′18″E, 6 Oct. 2006, M. Rakotoarinivo 317 (holotype K!; isotype TAN!) & M. Rakotoarinivo 321 (K!, TAN!).

Habitat. Common in lowland humid forest, in valleys and swampy areas; 600 – 650 m.

Conservation Status. Critically Endangered [CR(B2a + b(iii); D)]. Known only from one population in Vondrozo, where it is restricted to frequently flooded areas. In an Extent of Ocurrence estimated to be less than 7 km2, only about 40 mature individuals have been recorded in the field. The forest of Vondrozo is managed by the local community but logging operations still occur.

Notes. Similar to Ravenea robustior and R. krociana in having solitary inflorescences whether in male or female plants but differing from these in the lack of a ventricose trunk, a more delicate inflorescence, with pendulous rachillae, and having staminate flowers with usually 12 stamens rather than six. The presence of three seeds in the fruit is also rather unusual. The specific epithet honours Henk Beentje, monographer of Ravenea and co-author of Palms of Madagascar.

2. Ravenea hypoleucaRakotoarin. & J. Dransf.sp. nov.R. albicanti (Jum.) Beentje affinis sed vagina folii indumento non striato et inflorescentia in 2 ordines ramificanti differt. Typus: Madagascar, Fianarantsoa, Vondrozo, Madiorano, Rakotoarinivo 315 (holotypus K!; isotypus TAN!).

http://www.ipni.org/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77105558-1

Medium-sized solitary, dioecious palm. Trunk 6 – 10 m tall, 15 – 20 cm diam., blackish brown, covered in sheath remnants in the upper part, c. 25 cm in cross section. Leaves 16 – 20 in the crown, porrect, marcescent, litter-trapping; sheath 60 – 110 × 10 – 15 cm, pale green, covered in thick white tomentum, margins disintegrating and fibrous; petiole 80 – 150 cm long, 3.5 – 4 × 1.5 – 2.5 cm in cross section, deeply channelled, margins sharp, covered in white to greyish tomentum; rachis 3.5 – 4 m long, in mid-leaf 2.5 – 2.8 × 1.8 – 2.3 cm in cross section, pale green, covered in thick white tomentum especially on the abaxial surface, keeled on the adaxial surface; leaflets stiff, regularly arranged in one plane, dark green, 52 – 58 on each side of the rachis, proximal leaflets 62 – 85 × 1.5 – 2.8 cm, median leaflets 102 – 116 × 2.4 – 2.8 cm, distal leaflets 16 – 37 × 1.2 – 2 cm, leaflets spaced 4 – 6 cm apart, abaxial surface with continuous white tomentum, transverse veinlets sinuous. Inflorescences interfoliar, solitary. Staminate inflorescence erect, branched to 2 orders; peduncle 24 – 30 cm long, c. 1.5 – 3 cm in cross section, prophyll not seen, peduncular bracts c. 73 cm long, c. 14 cm wide, purplish, covered in thick white tomentum; rachis c. 48 cm long; rachillae 12 – 20 cm long, c. 2 mm in cross section; pedicel 0.6 – 1.2 mm. Flowers not seen. Pistillate inflorescence interfoliar, solitary, erect, branched to 1 order, 20 – 30 cm long, c. 2.4 cm in cross section; prophyll and peduncular bracts not seen; rachis 10 – 17 cm long; first order branches 18 – 22; rachillae 28 – 42 cm long, up to 1 cm in cross section at the base; pedicel 3 – 5 mm high. Flowers not seen. Fruits not seen. Fig. 14.
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Fig. 14

Ravenea hypoleucca.A apical leaflets; B basal leaflets; C petiole; D male inflorescence; E female inflorescence; F seedling. AD from M. Rakotoarinivo 315, EF from M. Rakotoarinivo et al. 353. Scale bar: A, B, C, F = 6 cm; D, E = 8 cm. drawn by lucy t. smith.

Distribution. Known only from Vondrozo forest, southeast Madagascar.

Specimens Examined. Madagascar. Fianarantsoa, Vondrozo, Madiorano, 22°47′42″S, 47°11′30″E, 22 Oct. 2006, M. Rakotoarinivo 315 (holotype K!; isotype TAN!); idem 22°48′08″S, 47°10′52″E, 4 Sept. 2009, M. Rakotoarinivo et al. 353 (K! TAN!).

Habitat. Lowland humid forest, valley bottoms or lower slopes; 550 – 600 m.

Conservation Status. Critically Endangered [CR(B2a + b(iii); D)]. Rare species, known only from Vondrozo where fewer than 20 mature individuals have been seen in an Extent of Occurrence of 6.7 km2. Current threats are mostly related to habitat loss and degradation due to timber extraction.

Notes. Initially this was confused with Ravenea albicans because of the strongly discolorous leaflets but it differs in the presence of continuous brown scales on the leaf rachis, rather than striped and discontinuous, and the inflorescence branched to 2 orders in the staminate plants. Based on incomplete material, the palm is nevertheless distinct and should be searched for in good fertile state and also elsewhere. The species epithet reflects the discolorous leaflets.

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the following researchers who collected palms in Madagascar and shared their samples with the Kew Herbarium: Anja Byg, Jeremie L. Razafitsalama and Laurent Gautier. Special thanks to William J. Baker for his continuous encouragement, to Lucy Smith for having drawn all the plates of these new species and to Soraya Villalba for helping in the preparation of digital versions of the plates. We thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive criticism.

Copyright information

© The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2010