, Volume 22, Issue 11, pp 2076-2089
Date: 27 Jan 2010

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Penetrator strength effect in long-rod critical ricochet angle

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3D numerical simulations were performed in order to further investigate the role of penetrator strength in the interaction of long-rods and oblique targets. Three distinctive regimes resulting from oblique impact depending on the obliquity, namely simple ricochet, critical ricochet and target perforation, were investigated in detail. Critical ricochet angles were calculated with a full 3D explicit finite element method for various impact velocities and strength of target plates and projectiles.

Numerical predictions were compared with existing two-dimensional analytical models and test results. It was predicted that critical ricochet angle increases with decreasing impact velocity and that higher ricochet angles were expected if higher strength target materials are employed. But there are differences between analytical models and 3D numerical simulation results or test results. The causes for these discrepancies are established by numerical simulations which explore the validity of the penetrator strength parameter in the analytical model as a physical entity.

As a matter of fact, in this paper we first investigate the role of penetrator dynamic strength using two-dimensional simulation which resulted in different penetrator strengths out of different impact velocities. Next, by applying these amounts for penetrator strength in Rosenberg analytical model the critical ricochet angle is calculated. Finally, a comparison between the present analytical method with the 3D simulation and test results shows that the new analytical approach leads to modified results with respect to Rosenberg ones.

This paper was recommended for publication in revised form by Associate Editor Jeonghoon Yoo
Kamran Daneshjou, is University Professor at Iran University of Science and Technology. He studied his MSC and PhD at aeronautical Engineering de-partment of Imperial college of Science and Technology in London. His own research is at the interface of solid mechanic, finite element and electromagnetic lunchers to address the sustainable development of aerospace and solid mechanic projects. His publications include 7 books and over 100 scientific papers.
This article has been retracted due to copyright issues that cannot be resolved.
The retraction note to this article can be found online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12206-009-1152-3.