RETRACTED ARTICLE: Penetrator strength effect in longrod critical ricochet angle
 K. Daneshjou,
 M. Shahravi
 … show all 2 hide
Rent the article at a discount
Rent now* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Get AccessAbstract
3D numerical simulations were performed in order to further investigate the role of penetrator strength in the interaction of longrods and oblique targets. Three distinctive regimes resulting from oblique impact depending on the obliquity, namely simple ricochet, critical ricochet and target perforation, were investigated in detail. Critical ricochet angles were calculated with a full 3D explicit finite element method for various impact velocities and strength of target plates and projectiles.
Numerical predictions were compared with existing twodimensional analytical models and test results. It was predicted that critical ricochet angle increases with decreasing impact velocity and that higher ricochet angles were expected if higher strength target materials are employed. But there are differences between analytical models and 3D numerical simulation results or test results. The causes for these discrepancies are established by numerical simulations which explore the validity of the penetrator strength parameter in the analytical model as a physical entity.
As a matter of fact, in this paper we first investigate the role of penetrator dynamic strength using twodimensional simulation which resulted in different penetrator strengths out of different impact velocities. Next, by applying these amounts for penetrator strength in Rosenberg analytical model the critical ricochet angle is calculated. Finally, a comparison between the present analytical method with the 3D simulation and test results shows that the new analytical approach leads to modified results with respect to Rosenberg ones.
 Zukas, J. A. (1990) High Velocity Impact Dynamics. Wiley, (New York)
 Ogorkiewicz, R. M. (1991) Technology of Tanks. Janes’s Information Group, Coulsdon
 Goldsmith, W., Cunningham, P. M. (1956) Kinematic Phenomena Observed During the Oblique Impact of a Sphere on a Beam. J. Appl. Mech. 78: pp. 612
 Recht, R. F., Ipson, T. W. (1962) The dynamics of terminal ballistics. Denver Research Institute, Denver
 S. A. Finnegan, L. F. Dimaranan, D. E. R. Heimdahl and J. K. Pringle, A study of obliquity effects on perforation and ricochet processes in thin plates impacted by compact fragments, Proc. 14^{th} Int. Symp. Ballistics, (1993) p 661.
 Tate, A. (1979) A simple estimate of the minimum target obliquity required for the ricochet of a high speed long rod projectile. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 12: pp. 1825 CrossRef
 Z. Rosenberg, Y. Yeshurun and M. Mayseless, On the. Ricochet of long rod projectiles, Proc. 11^{th} Int. Symp. Ballistics, (1989) p. 501.
 H. Senf, H. Rothenhausler, F. Scharpf, A. Both and W. Pfang, Experimental and numerical investigation of the ricocheting of projectiles from metallic surfaces, Proc. 6^{th} Int. Symp. Ballistics, (1981) p. 510.
 Zukas, J. A., Gaskill, B. (1996) Ricochet of deforming projectiles from deforming plates. Int. J. Impact Eng. 18: pp. 601 CrossRef
 Johnson, W., Sengupta, A. K., Ghosh, (1981) High velocity oblique impact and ricochet mainly of long rod projectile: an overview. Int. J. Mech. Sci. 24: pp. 425 CrossRef
 Johnson, W., Sengupta, A. K., Ghosh, (1981) Plasticine modeled high velocity oblique impact and ricochet of longrods. Int. J. Mech. Sci. 24: pp. 437455 CrossRef
 Reid, S. R., Edmonds, A. J., Johnson, W. (1981) Bending of long steel and aluminum rods during end impact with a rigid target. J. Mech. Eng. Sci. 23: pp. 85 CrossRef
 Jonas, G. H., Zukas, J. A. (1978) Mechanics of penetration: analysis and experiment. Int. J. Eng. Sei. 16: pp. 879 CrossRef
 Tate, A. (1967) A theory for the deceleration of long rods after impact. J. Mech. Phys. Solids. 15: pp. 387 CrossRef
 Tate, A. (1969) Further results in the theory of long rod penetration. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 17: pp. 141150 CrossRef
 Tate, A. (1977) A simple estimate of the minimum target obliquity required for the ricochet of a high speed long rod projectile. Int. J. Mech. Sci. 19: pp. 661671 CrossRef
 Goldsmith, W., Finnegan, S. A. (1986) Normal and oblique impact of cylindroconical and cylindrical projectiles on metallic plates. Int. J. Impact Eng. 4: pp. 83 CrossRef
 Roecker, E., Grabarek, C. (1986) The Effect of Yaw and Pitch on Long Rod Penetration into Rolled Homogeneous Armor at Various Obliquities. Proc. 9th Int. Symp. Ballistics 2: pp. 467473
 J. Falcovitz, M. Mayseless, Z. Tauber, D. Keck, R. Kennedy, K. Ofstedhal and P. Sing, A Computer Model for Oblique Impact of a Rigid Projectile at Ductile Layered Targets, Proc. 11^{th} Int. Symp. Ballistics, (1989) p. 311.
 G. R. Johnson, R. A. Stryk, T. J. Holmquist and O. A. Souka, Recent EPIC code developments for high velocity impact: 3D element arrangements and 2D fragment distributions, Int J Impact Eng, (1990), 281–294.
 Cullis, I. G., Lynch, N. J. (1995) Performance of model scale long rod projectiles against complex targets over the velocity range 1700–2200 m/s. Int. J. Impact Eng. 17: pp. 263274 CrossRef
 G. Luttwak, Z. Rosenberg and Y. Kivity, Long rod penetration in oblique impact, AlP Conf Proc. (1996).
 Pierazzo, E., Melosh, H. J. (2000) Understanding oblique impacts from experiments, observations, and modeling. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sei. 28: pp. 141167 CrossRef
 V. Hohler and A. J. Stilp, Interferometric Investigation of Rod Deceleration During Impact Process, Proc. 6^{th} Int. Symp. Ballistics, (1981) p. 333.
 G. F. Sislby, Penetration of semiinfinite steel targets by tungsten rods at 1.3 to 4.5 lcds, Proc. 8^{th} Int. Symp. Ballistics, (1984) p. 31.
 Cagliostro, D. J., Mandell, D. A., Schwalbe, L. A., Adams, T. F., Chapyak, E. J. (1990) Armor penetration by projectile with combined obliquity and yaw. Int. J. Impact Eng. 10: pp. 8192 CrossRef
 Bjerke, T. W., Silsby, G. F., Scheffler, D. R., Mudd, R. M. (1992) Yawed longrod armor penetration. Int. J. Impact Eng. 12: pp. 281292 CrossRef
 Bukharev, Y. I., Zhukov, V. I. (1995) Model of the penetration of a metal barrier by a rod projectile with an angle of attack, Combustion, Explosion and Shock Waves. Comb. Expl. Shock Waves (Fiz. Goren. Vzryva) 31: pp. 362 CrossRef
 Goldsmith, W., Tam, E., Tomer, D. (1995) Yawing impact on thin plates by blunt projectiles. Int. J. Impact Eng. 16: pp. 479498 CrossRef
 C. E. Anderson, S. J. Bless, T. R. Sharron, S. Satapathy and M. J. Normandia, Investigation of yawed impact into a finite target, AlP Conf Proc., (1998) p. 925.
 M. Lee and S. J. Bless, Cavity models for solid and hollow projectiles, AlP Conf Proc., (1998) 925–928.
 Zienkiewicz, C., Taylor, R. L. (1991) The Finite Element Method. McGrawHill, (New York)
 Belytschko, T., Liu, W. K., Morgan, B. (2000) Nonlinear Finite Elements for Continua and Structures. Wiley, (New York)
 Goldsmith, W. (1999) Nonideal projectile impact on targets. Int. J. Impact Eng 22: pp. 95395 CrossRef
 US DoD Armour Plate, Steel, Wrought, Homogeneous Military Specification MILA12560H (Amendment 3), (2000).
 G. R. Johnson and W. H. Cook, A constitutive model and data for metals subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high temperatures. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Ballistics, (1983) p. 541.
 Meyers, M. A. (1994) Dynamic Behavior of Materials. Wiley, (New York) CrossRef
 LsDyna User’s Manual version 970, (Livermore Software Technology Corporation), (2007).
 Rosenberg, Z., Dekel, E. (1998) A computational study of the relations between material properties of longrod penetrators and their ballistic performance. Int. J. Impact Eng 21: pp. 283296 CrossRef
 Anderson, C. E., Walker, J. D., Bless, S. J., Partom, Y. (1996) On the L/D effect for longrod penetrators. Int. J. Impact Eng 18: pp. 247264 CrossRef
 Anderson, C. E., Walker, J. D. (1991) An examination of longrod penetration. Int. J. Impact Eng 11: pp. 481 CrossRef
 Anderson, C. E., Walker, J. D., Hauver, G. E. (1992) Target resistance for longrod penetration into semiinfinite targets. Nucl. Eng 138: pp. 93104 CrossRef
 L. Woong, J. L. Heon and S. Hyunho, Ricochet of a tungsten heavy alloy longrod projectile from deformable steel plates, Int. J. Appl,Phys, (2002) 35.
 Title
 RETRACTED ARTICLE: Penetrator strength effect in longrod critical ricochet angle
 Journal

Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
Volume 22, Issue 11 , pp 20762089
 Cover Date
 20081101
 DOI
 10.1007/s1220600806063
 Print ISSN
 1738494X
 Online ISSN
 19763824
 Publisher
 Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
 Additional Links
 Topics
 Keywords

 Critical ricochet angle
 Penetrator strength
 Numerical solution
 LongRod
 Industry Sectors
 Authors

 K. Daneshjou ^{(1)}
 M. Shahravi ^{(1)}
 Author Affiliations

 1. Dep. of Mechanical Eng., Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran